Current Issue ( Vol. : 5, Issue: 2, April-June 2018)   


Title: HISTOPATHOLOGIC REVIEW OF OVARIAN TERATOMAS IN PORT HARCOURT.
Author: Dr Athanasius Boma Precious Dr Chukwudum Onwumelu
Keyword: Teratomas, Elderly, Malignancy.
Page No: 10-13
Abstract: Background: Ovarian teratomas are the commonest germ cell tumours of the ovary and they are seen in the young but can occasionally be seen in the elderly with an increased risk of malignant transforma tion. Method: This is an 8 years review of ovarian teratomas in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital and Braithwaite Memorial Specialist hospital both tertiary health facilities in port Harcourt. Results: Benign Cystic Teratomas were 120 accounting for 93.8% of all germ cell tumours. There were 2 cases of immature teratomas accounting for 1.6%, and cystic teratomas with malignant transformation 2 accounting for 1.6%. Teratomas with malignant transformation were all observed in postmenopausal women in the 51-60 years’ age group while immature teratomas were encountered in the 21-30 years’ age group. Conclusion: Mature cystic teratomas are the commonest ovarian germ cell tumours with an increased risk of malignant change in older women. Key words: Teratomas, Elderly, Malignancy. Download PDF


Title: CONTRAST MEDIA USED IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
Author: Pankaj Yadav*, Ashok Yadav, Prathibha Yadav, Akash Yadav
Keyword: Contrast media (CM), Computed Tomography, Radiocontrast Agents, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Page No: 14-19
Abstract: Contrast media (CM) are used in imaging techniques to enhance the differences between body tissues on images. The ideal contrast medium should attain a very high concentration in the tissues without p roducing any adverse effects. Unfortunately, this has not been possible so far and all CM have adverse effects. The increasing use of CM is likely to give rise to a wide range of pitfalls, including compliance with and appropriateness of indications for the use of CM themselves, the choice of the ‘best’ contrast agent, off-label use, evaluation of special populations of patients. Even more prominently it is the issue of informed consent which brings with it a duty to inform patients awaiting the administration of CM with regard to the nature of the procedure, the existence of alternative procedures, the extent of the risks relating to the use of CM and, finally, the risks relating to refusal of the procedure. All these issues may give rise to concerns about liability for failure to offer adequate information to patients or to carefully evaluate and balance the potential risks and benefits of the procedure or, finally, for being unprepared in the event of adverse reactions to CM, especially when these are severe and life-threatening. Educational and training programmes for radiologists are likely to shape change in the medical liability environment in the coming years. Keywords: Contrast media (CM), Computed Tomography, Radiocontrast Agents, Magnetic Download PDF


Title: DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING PATHWAYS: ULTRASOUND CONTRAST AGENTS
Author: Pankaj Yadav, Ashok Yadav, Prathibha Yadav, Shaily Chaudhary
Keyword: Ultrasonography, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), Microbubbles, Diagnostic Imaging Pathways
Page No: 20-31
Abstract: Ultrasonography lacked substances to be administered to patients to improve or increase the diagnostic yield, which is peculiar considering that contrast agents have long been used with all the other imaging techniques. Fortunately some contrast agents, most of them consisting in gas microbubbles, have been recently introduced for ultrasound imaging too: this review will focus on their history, behavior, current applications and future developments. No definitive conclusions can be drawn yet on the actual merits of each contrast agent, but all of them seem to be both effective and safe, meaning that their future success will depend on the relative cost-effectiveness and peculiarities. Key Words: Ultrasonography, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), Microbubbles, Diagnostic Imaging Pathways Download PDF