ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Applied Science)


Title: IMPACT OF ACIDIFICATION ON HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN HOOGHLY ESTUARY
Author: Tanmay Ray Chaudhuri, Pardis Fazli, Sufia Zaman, Prosenjit Pramanick, Rahul Bose and Abhijit Mitra
Keyword: Acidification, Surface water pH, dissolved heavy metals, biologically available heavy metals in the sediment.
Page No: 91-97
Abstract: The surface water pH, dissolved heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb) and biologically available heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb) in the surface sediment were monitored for 30 years in the Hooghly estuary located in the western sector of Indian Sundarbans. The gradual decrease of surface water pH played a significant role in the process of compartmentation of heavy metals in the estuarine system. It is observed that lowering of pH triggered the process of transference of heavy metals from the sediment to the overlying aqueous system. The correlation coefficient values and scatter plots support our findings. Such phenomenon is of considerable importance while developing the management action plan to control heavy metal pollution in the estuarine system. Keywords: Acidification, Surface water pH, dissolved heavy metals, biologically available heavy metals in the sediment. Download PDF


Title: EVOLUTION OF POSTAL SOLAR POWER RICKSHAW TECHNOLOGY VIS-À-VIS ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
Author: Rajesh Kumar, Arun Agarwala
Keyword: Solar Rickshaw, Postal Rickshaw, BLDC Motor, PMDC Motor
Page No: 98-110
Abstract: The evolution of machinery represents an expansion of human capacities, an increase in human control over environment through the ability to elicit from instruments of production an increasing range a nd exactitude of response. But it is in the nature of machinery, and a corollary of technical development, that the control over machine need no longer be vested in its immediate operator. This possibility is seized upon by the capitalist mode of production and utilised to the fullest extent. The economic shaping of technology is, in fact, the social shaping of technology. The economic shaping, is one of Marx’s- the realisation that economic calculation and economic ‘laws’ are specific to particular forms of society, not universal. Every city had different rickshaw design and one can find Kolkutta and Delhi rickshaws are totally changed, in considerations, design and aesthetic look. Even if in all societies people have to try to reckon the costs and benefits of particular design decisions and technical choices, the form taken by that reckoning is importantly variable. A wider acceptance of scientific ideas in the society was a necessary condition for the achieving the major goals that the technology had set during inception of innovative idea. Phrases such as ‘scientific temper’ ‘broad scientific outlook’, scientific belief system’ and ‘scientific method’ echoed repeatedly in various forms of debate on ‘solar power rickshaw’ design and evolution of different variant for innovative application. Rural networking encompasses with postman that complete the societal networking. The country growth indicator reflected from the well connected society. The innovator vision is to empower postman with computer, internet, telephone, which support for post, email, talk, insurance, banking and safe secure parcel collection & delivery, up to last mileage of country. Solar power rickshaw fulfill the dreams of postman with reduced human drudgery employing complete green technology vehicle for the mobile post office. The proposed solar power rickshaw development model have multiple organisational involvement, with Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) as research and technology development, Department of Scientific & Industrial Research (DSIR) for promotion research and development (R&D) in private sector, Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) subsidy to sensitise postman for technology adoption and for covering trial risk of new renewable energy technology, Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF) for benefit sharing under PoA- CDM and Department of Post (DOP) for encouragement for rural mobile post office. The business plan on solar power rickshaw for mobile post office for postman has been workout in this study keeping in view that postman is best media for dissemination of information during his daily travel on an average 20 km. Key Words : Solar Rickshaw, Postal Rickshaw, BLDC Motor, PMDC Motor Download PDF


Title: ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED FOR FOUR DIFFERENT SAMPLES AT RAMNAD AND SIVAGANGAI DISTRICTS, TAMIL NADU, IN INDIA
Author: R. Barsana Barvin, M.Kashif, K.Sree Revathy, A. Ayeshamariam, K. Mohamed Rafi, and M. Bououdina, U. Hashim
Keyword: Packaged drinking water, physico-chemical parameter; BIS-specification; chemical oxygen demand (COD); dissolved oxygen (DO).
Page No: 111-117
Abstract: Four brands of sachet packaged water samples were collected in and around Ramnad and Sivagangai district, People use polluted water which causes many health problems and therefore people must be edu cated to remove impurities from water. The present study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical quality of 4 brands of packaged drinking water available at two different regions and compared with Bureau of Indian Standards Specifications (BIS). The results of the analyses revealed that most of the water samples were colourless, odourless. The chemical analysis showed that the measured parameters are in the range: pH (8.3-9.1); electrical conductance - EC (0.11-1.1 unit); alkalinity (0.6-1.0 mg/l); total hardness - TH (18.5-35.0 mg/l); calcium hardness (20.0-23.75 mg/l); magnesium hardness (3.5-11.75 mg/l); dissolved oxygen - DO (5.2-9.2 mg/l); chemical oxygen demand - COD (0.25-0.38 mg/l); chloride as Cl- (15.9-24.25 mg/l); sulphate (20.63-27.5 mg/l). It can be noticed that the concentration of the investigated parameters in the analysed water samples were within the permissible limits of the bureau of Indian standard (BIS) drinking water quality guidelines except for the values of pH and DO. The pH values for sample B, C and D which is also above the permissible limits as prescribed by BIS.Download PDF


Title: STRUCTURE MAKING AND BREAKING EFFECTSOF MOLIONIC AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ESTIMATED WITH DENSITY, APPARENT MOLAL VOLUME, SURFACE TENSION, VISCOSITY, FRICCOHESITY, ACTIVATION ENERGY AND ENTROPY AT 293.15 K
Author: R. K. Ameta and Man Singh
Keyword: Ion water interaction, ionic size, surface tension, intrinsic viscosity, cohesive, frictional
Page No: 118-127
Abstract: Density, apparent molal volume, surface tension, viscosity and friccohesity data for 0.01 to 0.1 mol activities at surface and bulk respectively. Viscosity, friccohesity and apparent molal volume kg-1 aqueous K2Cr2O7, K2HPO4, KMnO4, KH2PO4, KCl and KOH at an interval of 0.01 at 293.15 K are studied. Surface and bulk chemical potentials determined from surface tension to analyze ionic data were used to calculate intrinsic viscosity, viscosity B coefficient, intrinsic friccohesity and activation energy as well as entropy changes. Limiting density, surface tension and viscosity obtained by fitting Redlich–Kister equation for ionic contribution onion-water interactions (IWI). Limiting surface tension and B data plotted with intrinsic friccohesity slopes that inferred a reverse relation between surface tension and B coefficient related to cohesive (CF) and frictional forces (FF) on account of surface energy and hydration dynamics respectively. The CF and FF forces are opposite and reinforced with anionic sizes for surface tension and B behavior. Activation energy and entropy data revealed spontaneous interaction of chosen salts with water that inferred structure breaking and making activities. Download PDF


Title: AN EFFECTIVE VARIABLE CLUSTERING METHOD FOR CHOOSING RIGHT NUMBER OF CLUSTERS
Author: S. M. A. Khaleelur Rahman, M. Mohamed Sathik, K. Senthamarai Kannan
Keyword: Clustering, Cluster correlation, Inter-cluster correlation, Intra-cluster correlation, Linear correlation
Page No: 128-136
Abstract: Data mining techniques have been used for finding useful patterns in data. Sometimes these patterns are visible easily. Many times, there are lack of patterns or very excessive patterns. Real world d ata usually contains more complex structures so that predicting useful pattern is not easy for even a sophisticated data mining technique. Clustering provides a method to break a larger database in to meaningful pieces to describe each piece simply. Once the proper clusters have been identified and defined then it is possible to find patterns within each cluster. In this paper , a proposed method based on variable clustering method is presented. We first perform VARCHA approach. This is a bottom up hierarchical agglomerative approach relies on popular K-MEANS algorithm. A top down method VARCLUS is also used .Choosing right number of cluster is an important criterion in clustering problems. Required number of clusters is decided by calculating Variation and Proportion. Experimental results clearly indicated that our methods are effective for choosing number of clusters. The test results suggested our proposed method can be applied to different data sets for effective results.Download PDF


Title: OVERVIEW OF SOFT SET THEORY ON UNCERTAINITY PROBLEM
Author: Payal Gupta, Dr. R P Dubey
Keyword: Soft set Theory, Uncertainty, and Fuzzy Set
Page No: 137-141
Abstract: There are lots of cases those are create uncertain problem which make confusion to take decision. Soft set theory is introduced to make decision under such uncertain condition. Soft set theory was re presents as a general mathematical tool for dealing with contain uncertainties problems. The aim of this work is to define special kinds of soft sets to use them in order to give an alternative characterization of categories related to solve uncertain problem. Decision making methods on soft set theory will provide to take decision in uncertain problem by considering 2 cases problem that contain Uncertainty.Download PDF


Title: WATER INFLUENCE OF 1.064 µM AND 0.532 µM LIGHT WAVELENGTH PROPAGATION DIRECTED AT HUMAN TEETH
Author: Balsam M. Mirdan, Shakir M. Lafta
Keyword: Tooth structure, optical property, root canal treatment
Page No: 142-149
Abstract: Abstract. The research was performed to calculate the amount of the loss from the light incident on the tooth structure at the 1.064µm and 0.532 µm wavelengths via reflection and transmission. The d iffused scattering spectra at 400-900 µm were measured, too. The aim was to find a wavelength that possesses a stable behavior with the tooth structure. To find the suitable wavelength that is not influenced by the dryness of the tooth during laser irradiation. Material and method: UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer was implemented to measure the transmission and scattering spectra of.1mm thickness of wet human teeth as a function of time. The change in the light behavior was recorded during the experiment. Results: There was a dramatic drop in the amount of transmitted light as the tooth gets dry with time which may be due the abrupt increase in the variation in the refractive index at the interface between the incident media to the transmitted media. Recommendation: the presence of water at the interface between air and tooth surface influences the light behavior at 1.064µm while for 0.532 µm wavelength the light was not affected. Download PDF