ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Applied Science)


Title: AN OVERVIEW OF SOME CONVENTIONAL AND MODERN FINGERPRINT TECHNIQUES
Author: Jasmine Kaur Dhall, G.S. Sodhi and A.K Kapoor
Keyword: Fingerprints, Development, Techniques
Page No: 150-158
Abstract: Fingerprints are the most infallible means of identification. Latent print development from crime scenes is a challenging task. Fingerprint composition, Surface type and the technique used govern the success of development. A wide range of physical, chemical and optical techniques are available. However their application demands a complete understanding of the working and their compatibility with the other two factors. The present communication provides an overview of various conventional and modern fingerprint techniques. Keywords: Fingerprints, Development, Techniques Download PDF


Title: DETERMINATION OF METALS IN BIOMASS FROM SOUTHERN CA SALT MARSH, USA
Author: Mohammad Hassan Rezaie-Boroon, Sonya Diaz, Vanessa Torres, Dimitri D. Deheyn
Keyword: Salinas de San Pedro, Bivalves, bioconcentration factor, heavy metals, target hazard quotients (THQ)
Page No: 159-173
Abstract: Abstract Concentrations of metals have been determined in sediments from the southern California salt marsh, Salinas de San Pedro, USA. The salt marsh receives anthropogenic inputs from surrounding s ites, which are urbanized and industrialized to varying degrees (Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors). We have analyzed selected body parts of biological samples for metals concentration. Generally, digestive organ of collected bivalves samples exhibited higher metal concentration than foot, muscle and shell . Among the analyzed bivalve species, the average concentrations (mg/g; wet weight) of heavy metals in the digestive, foot, muscle, and shell respectively were as follows: Al (0.07,0.16, 0.50, 0.07), As (0.00001, 0.0069, 0.005, 0.0000006), Cd (0.005, 0.0004, 0.0006, 0.00001), Cr (0.003, 0.005, 0.019, 0.00009), Cu (0.13, 0.17, 0.30, 0.0002), Fe (3.93, 0.39, 1.14, 0.11), Mn (3.35, 0.02, 0.04, 0.01), Ni (0.023, 0.005, 0.012, 0.0005), Pb (0.01, 0.01, 0.04, 0.0003), S (3.12, 0.72, 1.46, 3.21), Se (0.005, 0.0002,0.0002, 0,0002), Zn (3.43, 0.14, 0.32, 0.32) . The average concentrations (g/mg) of trace metals decreased in the order Fe>Mn>Zn>S>Al (for digestive), S>Fe>Al>Cu>Zn (for foot part), S>Fe>Al>Zn>Pb (for muscle), and S>Zn>Fe (for shell). Metals in oxide phase are potentially available to filter-feeding and burrowing organisms as acidic, reducing conditions are encountered in a gastro-intestinal environment. Even though the concentrations for most for snails and bivalves samples were below the limit values and also for most bioaccumulation levels were not critical, a potential danger may appear in future, depending on the local waste water and industrial activities in Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors. Keywords: Salinas de San Pedro, Bivalves, bioconcentration factor, heavy metals, target hazard quotients (THQ) Download PDF


Title: SCIENCE OF MEDITATION AND THERAPY
Author: Suphanchai Punthawanunt1, Preecha P. Yupapin
Keyword: Meditation therapy; Enlightenment; Nirvana, Quantum life, Neuroscience, Meditation
Page No: 174-177
Abstract: This article describes the concept of meditation in terms of brain signals, which can be formed by human spirit, i.e. coherent light. The elimination of human passion can be controlled by a deep medit ation, in which a single passion state occupation is needed to achieve, where finally the passion vacuum state (happiness) is formed and achieved. In principle, a pair of pure and vacuum passion states can be controlled and arranged to obtain the vacuum passion state, which can provide the healthy mind and bring human self-defense and happiness. Keywords: Meditation therapy; Enlightenment; Nirvana, Quantum life, Neuroscience, Meditation Download PDF


Title: A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF VOWEL SOUNDS IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC LANGUAGES
Author: Sarab Kadir Mugair and Tengku Sepora Tengku Mahadi
Keyword: Vowels in Standard Arabic, Characterization of Arabic Vowels, Vowels in Standard American English, and Specific comparison and potential problems.
Page No: 178-183
Abstract: Scholars like Roach (1992) and Abdul-Rauf (1977) state that sounds are generally classified into consonants and vowels. A consonant is identified as a speech sound which blocks the air flow through the vocal tract. While a vowel is seen as the class of sound which makes the least blocks to the air flow. Vowels are nearly ever located at the centre of a syllable, and it uncommon to locate any sound other than a vowel which is able to stand alone as a whole syllable (Roach, 1992). Each vowel has a number of features that realizes it from other vowel sounds. These comprise; the shape of the lips, which could be rounded, neutral, or spread. The second feature is the position of the tongue, which may be front, middle, or back. Finally, the tongue may be raised giving different vowel qualities. In fact, there are similarities and differences in distribution the vowel sounds in both English and Arabic languages. They differ in number; English has more vowels than Arabic, i.e., Arabic has far fewer vowels and diphthongs than English and articulation is more stressed than English. There is also the use of glottal stops before initial vowels. These languages are also different in distribution; English words can start with vowels, whereas Arabic words can only start with consonants. Both languages have several joint vowels, but in the same respect, there are some vowel sounds that are limited to each one of them. However, many theoretical and practical contrastive researches have been done on different levels of language by scholars, linguists and psycholinguists in the field of Contrastive Analysis. There are mainly three levels which are made use of in CA studies: 1) lexis 2) grammar 3) phonology. From these three level the level of phonology and in particular the sound systems of English and Arabic are compared and contrasted in the current study. Virtually, this study juxtaposed the vowels of English and Arabic and supplied examples from both languages to draw out the similarities and difference. It also debates the difficulties that Arabs learning English face when learning English. The research will be focused on the comparison between standard American English and standard Arabic which is called Modern Literary Arabic as it is the language of publications in all the Arab states, as well as the oral language of formal occasions. Keywords: Introduction, Vowels in Standard Arabic, Characterization of Arabic Vowels, Vowels in Standard American English, and Specific comparison and potential problems. Download PDF


Title: INFLUENCE OF THE NEUTRALIZATION STEP ON THE HYDROLYSIS STABILITY OF ACID OLIVE OIL
Author: Kamel Essid*, Mahmoud Trabelsi, Mohamed Hédi Frikha
Keyword: Keywords: Olive oil, oil stability, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, neutralization.
Page No: 184-197
Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of neutralizing process, using soda or lime, on fatty acid and triglyceridic compositions. The results of the different analyses by chrom atographic methods (CPG and HPLC) and a theoretical calculation, bearing on the distribution of the fatty acids on the internal and external positions of glycerol, enabled us to put in a prominent position the effects of neutralizing on the physicochemical properties of treated oils. A study, bearing on the hydrolysis resistance of neutralized oils, was also carried out. The fatty acid composition (GC-MS) and the triacylglycerol composition (HPLC) allowed us to conclude that oils, neutralized with soda or lime, do not undergo considerable physicochemical alterations and remain corresponding to the international standards for refined oils for human consumption. Keywords: Olive oil, oil stability, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, neutralization. Download PDF


Title: ESTIMATIONS OF HERITABILITY AND CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR GRAIN YIELD AND IT COMPONENTS IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.) UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS IN SAVANNA ZONES OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
Author: D. Aminu, J. W. Wabekwa and A. S. Muhammad
Keyword: Correlation, drought, heritability, maize, traits and savanna.
Page No: 198-203
Abstract: Abstract A study was carried out to estimates the percentage of heritability and correlation coefficients of desirable maize agronomic traits under drought tolerance condition. Nine parental-lines (f ive males and four females) were crossed to generate twenty hybrids using a line x tester mating design. Twenty-nine entries consisting of twenty F1 hybrids plus nine parental lines were laid-out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, and were evaluated in two locations vis Biu and Damboa during the cropping season in 2009. The sowing was carried out in mid and end of August (15th-30th August) in Sudan and Northern Guinea savannas respectively in order to subject the entries to moisture stress. Evaluations were done to investigate broad-sense heritability and correlation coefficients between the traits and total grain yield. The results for combined locations showed higher heritability estimates of 62.37%, 65.29%, 60.09% and 65.37 for days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, dehusked cobs and grain yield respectively. However, moderates heritability estimates of 53.84%, 51.28%, 54.73%, 54.04% and 57.75% for number of stands per plot, anthesis silking interval, plant height, weight of cobs and 100 seed weight respectively were observed. Higher and relatively moderate broad-sense heritability of the traits revealed that variations were transmissible and potential for developing high yielding varieties through selection of desirable plants in succeeding generations exist. Correlation coefficients analysis revealed that days to 50% tasseling (r = 0.3677), number of cobs per plant (r = 0.5646), number of cobs per plot (r = 0.4992), weight of cobs (r = 0.3757g, r = 0.3616p and r = 0.7727e), dehusked cobs (r = 0.3746p and 0.7884e) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.3767) showed positive and significant genotypic (g), phenotypic (p) and environmental (e) correlation with grain yield except number of stands per plot and ear height which were negatively correlated with grain yield. The magnitude of genotypic correlations were higher than those in phenotypic and environmental correlation coefficients to grain yield, which means that selection for these traits will improve grain yield. The study also observed that correlations as well as heritability were suitable as models for yield improvement and selection for drought tolerant genotypes. Key Words: Correlation, drought, heritability, maize, traits and savanna. Download PDF


Title: ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND AND TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON IN ACID MINE DRAINAGE POLLUTED WATER BODIES.
Author: Caroline L. Dlamini*, Amos O. Fadiran, Justice M. Thwala
Keyword: TOC, COD, trihalomethanes, LOI
Page No: 204-210
Abstract: Abstract Twenty-five sediment samples and 11 water samples were collected from surface water bodies in the vicinity of the Ngwenya Mine in Swaziland. The sediment samples were analyzed for total orga nic carbon (TOC) by loss-on-ignition (LOI) in a muffle furnace at 550 °C while the water samples were analyzed for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) using a biological reactor. The sediment samples contained between 1.85% and 18.37% TOC. The sources of the organic carbon (OC) in the water system were both anthropogenic and natural. This result implies that the sediments from all the sites are susceptible to pollution by heavy metals bound as complexes with the OC. Based on the USPH standard of 4 ppm MCL (maximum contaminant level) for COD, 55% of the water samples were polluted with respect to their COD levels. Water containing OC forms carcinogenic and mutagenic trihalomethanes (THMs) on chlorination that is a health risk. Hence the national environmental authority and the water corporation should urgently address this issue with a view of curbing further accumulation of OC in these water bodies. This is much more so as some are the sources of drinking water supply to the capital city. Keywords: TOC, COD, trihalomethanes, LOI Download PDF


Title: INVESTIGATION OF PICKLED WATER SPINACH (IPOMOEA AQUATIC) FERMENTATION BY LACTOBACILLUS SP.
Author: Nguyen Phuoc Minh
Keyword: Water spinach, blanching, lactobacillus sp., fermentation, shelf-life, pickle
Page No: 211-224
Abstract: Extensive aquatic or semi-aquatic production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) for human consumption takes place in Vietnam.Pickled water spinach has rich iron content that makes it a good diertary food for people suffering from anemia. Its high level of S-methyl methionine is used in the treatment of gastric, intestinal problem, and hyperglycemia alleviation. We use the pure Lactobacillus sp. to ferment the water spinach pickle. Blanching is performed at 65-70oC in 60 seconds with CaCl2 0.075% to improve product quality, especially structure and color. Fermentation batch is prepared with 3% salt, sugar 2%, lactic bacteria 0.75%. The water spinach pickle is preserved in potassium sorbate to extend its shelf-life. Keywords: Water spinach, blanching, lactobacillus sp., fermentation, shelf-life, pickle Download PDF


Title: FUZZY SOFT SET AND ITS APPLICATION IN MATRIX
Author: Ajay Bhardwaz, R P Dubey
Keyword: Fuzzy soft set, Matrix application, Uncertainty.
Page No: 225-227
Abstract: Abstract Fuzzy soft set theories are represents as a general mathematical tool for dealing with contain decision making problems. The aim of this paper is to elaborate fuzzy soft set theory and evalu ate the different type of matrix application in terms of Fuzzy soft set. Matrix application reduce the uncertainty for make decision in critical condition. Keywords:- Fuzzy soft set, Matrix application, Uncertainty. Download PDF


Title: DIFFERENT FACTORS INFLUENCING TO ANNATTO DYE EXTRACTION IN BIXAORELANAL. SEEDS
Author: Nguyen Phuoc Minh
Keyword: Bixaorelana, dye extraction, solvent, annato
Page No: 228-233
Abstract: Abstract Annato is redish orange in colour, usualy soft, but hard and britle when dry. It has a peculiar swetish odour and a disagreable saline biterish taste. It softens in water, to which it impart s a yelowcolor, but does not disolve. The principal pigment in annato extract is bixin, which is contained in the resinous coating of the seed itself.Annatosems to be an important natural colorant for fod and drug industries owing to its potential uses as a substiute for Tartrazine which is a synthetic colourant that is prohibited in many countries. Purpose of our research is to investigate some major factors affecting to annatto dye extraction from BixaorelanaL. seeds such as kind and concentration of extraction solvent; ratio of solid/solvent; extraction time and temperature. Our results are as follows: solvent NaOH 0.5 M, ratio of solid/solvent 5g/90ml, extraction time 5 hours at temperature 80oC. Keywords: Bixaorelana, dye extraction, solvent, annato Download PDF


Title: HYDROLIZED FISH OILQUALITY FROM PANGASIUS HYPOPHTHALMUS BY-PRODUCT AND ITS STABILITY IN PRESERVATION
Author: Nguyen Phuoc Minh
Keyword: Pangasius hypophthalmus by-product, hydrolysis, fish oil stability, preservation.
Page No: 234-240
Abstract: Abstract Pangasius hypophthalmus, also known as freshwater Tra catfish, is the main commercial farmed fish in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The rapid development of fishery products processing in Viet nam has had a significant impact on the socio-economic development of the country. This development also generates a large amount of fishery by-product. We come to investigate the hydrolysis of Pangasius hypophthalmus by-product to produce fish oil and its stability during preservation. The chemical compositions in Pangasius hypophthalmus by-product include 18.31% protein; 7.34% lipid; 63.09% moisture; 8.13% ash. Lipid recovery is 67.83%. Hydrolized fish oil contains 99.58% lipid; 0.35% moisture; 3.6 mg KOH/g acidity index; 216.28 mg KOH/g saponification; 212.68 mg KOH/g esterification; 195 gI2/100g iodine; 1 meq/kg peroxide index. Pangasius hypophthalmus fish oil contains essential fatty acids, especially DHA and EPA. So we also investigate the effect of temperature and vitamin ratio to fish oil stability during preservation.Our data demonstrate that low temperature preservation shall limit the lipid hydrolization and oxidation. Vitamin E plays a key role in lipid oxidation prevention. Keywords: Pangasius hypophthalmus by-product, hydrolysis, fish oil stability, preservation. Download PDF


Title: COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY OF APM AND MNO2 BY PHOTOCATALYTICAL DEGRADATION OF SARANINE-O BASED ON QUALITY PARAMETER MODIFICATION
Author: Swati Jakar*, Ramakant Chaturvedi, Mohan Kumar Sharma
Keyword: Safranin O, Photocatalysis, APM, MnO2, Quality parameters
Page No: 241-249
Abstract: Abstract A semiconductor mediated photocatalytic treatment is preferred due to low operating cost and effective treatment to dyes polluted effluent. But sometimes it can generate even more toxic dye intermediate than parent dye molecule. Before the treated water is discharged into ecosystem, it should be mandatory to analyse it according to quality parameters. Present investigation analyses the use of Ammonium phosphomolybdate and MnO2 with sunlight irradiation for photo catalytic degradation of Safranin O dye contaminated water. Safranin O dye has wide application in counter staining nuclei red and applied to Cotton, fibres, leather, wool, silk and paper. Surplus and used dye is discharged in sink drain which cause hazardous and toxicity concern to ecosystem due to stability of dye and negative modification in quality parameters. When Safranin-dye solution (polluted water) was treated by APM and MnO2 , significant changes were observed in pH, Alkalinity, Hardness, COD, BOD, DO, Conductivity, TDS and concentration of Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, F-, NO3-, SO4-2, Turbidity and Colour disappearance. Present paper analyse the comparison of photocatalytic activity of APM and MnO2 based on quality parameters modification which occur in photocatalytic treatment of Safranin O dye. Keywords- Safranin O, Photocatalysis, APM, MnO2, Quality parameters Download PDF


Title: UTILIZATION OF PANGASIUS HYPOPHTHALMUS BY-PRODUCT TO PRODUCE PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE USING ALCALASE ENZYME
Author: Nguyen Phuoc Minh
Keyword: Pangasius hypophthalmus, by-product, alcalase, hydrolysis, protein hydrolysate
Page No: 250-256
Abstract: Pangasius hypophthalmus is one of the major fish species in the Mekong River fishery, one of the largest and most important inland fisheries in the world. Unfortunately increasing production of catfi sh also resulted in increasing its by-product. This source is rich in protein so we can utilize it to produce value-added product. Protein hydrolysate is a case in point. Protein hydrolysate can be used to improve or modify the physicochemical, functional properties such as solubility, fat absorption, waterholding capacity, foaming properties, emulsifying properties and or sensory properties of proteins without losing its nutritional value. That is the aim of our research in utilizing Pangasiushypophthalmusby-product to produce protein hydrolysate. Optimal conditions for protetin hydrolysis are presented at temperature 60oC and pH 5 in 180 minutes with 40% water supplementation. We suggest using 10% hot water to remove fat. The protein hydrolysate concentrating process is conducted at pressure 0.33 atm, temperature 80oC in 137 minutes. Alcalase enzyme is positively used for hydrolysis. Keywords: Pangasius hypophthalmus, by-product, alcalase, hydrolysis, protein hydrolysate Download PDF