ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Pharmacy)


Title: ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM: FRIEND OR FOE?
Author: Mr. Anoop Kumar
Keyword: Guest Editorial
Page No: i
Abstract: Adaptive immune system: Friend or Foe? Immunity is body’s self defense mechanism for protecting the body from infectious diseases or other antigen attacks. The immune system is a tightly regulated co mplex network, including lymphoid, reticular, dendrite and epithelial cells, interacting by cell to cell contacts and communicating via soluble mediators such as cytokines. Adaptive immune system is a more heterogeneous and complex system comprising of T and B cells. Adaptive responses are generated in the lymph nodes, spleen and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. It involves the proliferation of antigen-specific B and T cells. Specialized cells, called antigen-presenting cells, display the antigen to lymphocytes and collaborate with them in response to antigen. B cells secrete immunoglobulins (IgG) and T cells help B cells to make antibody. Antigen recognition is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restricted. Immune memory also is a hallmark feature of the adaptive immune system and results in a more efficient response upon secondary exposure to the same antigen. So, the adaptive immune system acts as our friend to combat against pathogens but the mechanism by which T and B cell protect our body against pathogens is still unclear. For better understanding of its mechanism, it should be explores in future studies. When this system unable to recognize its own cell, it become our enemy which results in various autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 DM, systemic lupus erthromatous etc. In literature various studies has been conducted to understand their mechanism but unfortunately how the adaptive immune system become our foe is still unclear. So, In future studies, researchers should plan their research to explore this issues which will be helpful to design drugs and vaccines for autoimmune disorders. Download PDF


Title: THE PROOXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM IS THE PRIMARY STAGE OF THE ANSWER OF ORGANISM ON UNBALANCED DIET
Author: Bozhkov A. I., Nikitchenko Yu.V., Sheremet A. A., Bozhkov A.A.
Keyword: Unbalanced diet, Aronia melanocarpa, antioxidant enzymes.
Page No: 78-90
Abstract: Abstract The influence of the by animal proteins and vitamins unbalanced diet (PVU diet) on some characteristics of prooxidant and antioxidant systems activity in rats obtaining on such diet during 2 months was investigated. This diet was not influence the somatometric characteristics of animals but the products of free radical reactions increased in liver microsomes and mitochondria and also in the blood serum. Such changes of prooxidant activity were shown simultaniusely with decreased activity of glutathione peroxidase and other antioxidant enzymes. The changes in the balance of pro – and antioxidants not depended on age of experimental animals. Addition of Aronia melanocarpa fruits to the diet of animals did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes, but decreased the content of peroxidation products to the control level. This effect is due to the presence of antioxidant non enzymatic components in fruits of Aronia melanocarpa. The peroxidation in animals on the PVU can be achieved by the inclusion of sodium selenite in such diet. PVU-induced changes in the prooxidant system of the animals can be removed by different strategies. Keywords: Unbalanced diet, Aronia melanocarpa, antioxidant enzymes. Download PDF


Title: ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SONERILA TINNEVELLIENSIS FISCHER WHOLE PLANT AGAINST DALTON ASCITES LYMPHOMA
Author: Komalavalli. T, Packia Lincy. M, Muthukumarasamy. S and Mohan V.R
Keyword: S. tinnevelliensis, Antitumor, DAL, tumor volume, HB, haematological profile.
Page No: 91-100
Abstract: The ethanol extract of whole plant of S. tinnevelliensis was evaluated for antitumor activity against Dalton’s ascites lymphoma (DAL)-bearing swiss albino mice. The extract was administered at the dos es of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days after 24h of tumor inoculation. Evaluation of the antitumor effect of ethanol extract of whole plant of S. tinnevelliensis on tumor growth and host survival time was made by the study of the following parameters: tumor volume, viable and non viable cell count and life span of host. The results showed decrease in tumor volume and viable cell count. Haematological studies revealed that, the Hb count decreased in DAL treated mice, whereas it was induced by the drug treated animals and showed an increase in Hb near to normal levels. The results suggested that the extract of whole plant of S. tinnevelliensis exhibited significant antitumor activity on DAL bearing mice. Keywords: S. tinnevelliensis, Antitumor, DAL, tumor volume, HB, haematological profile. Download PDF


Title: POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTS FROM SARGASSUM SILIQUOSUM J.G. AGARDH MODULATES PRODUCTION OF PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN LPS-INDUCED PBMC AND DELAYS COAGULATION TIME IN-VITRO
Author: Ross D. Vasquez, Ruby SP. Garcia-Meim and, John Donnie A. Ramos
Keyword: Sargassum siliquosum, sulfated polysaccharides, ashing-acid digestion, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cytokines, inflammation, coagulation
Page No: 101-112
Abstract: Abstract Sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds exhibit various biological activities, structural diversity, and are potential reagents for the development of therapeutic drugs. This study aime d to determine the effect of aqueous and fucoidan extracts from Sargassum siliquosum J. G. Agardh on viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and plasma coagulation using in vitro assays. Sulfate contents of the polysaccharides were quantified using Acid-Ashing Digestion Ion chromatography. Effect on viability of the extracts on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by MTT Assay. Estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokines concentrations was done through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, while anticoagulant activity was measured by Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time. Results revealed that both extracts were non-cytotoxic to PBMCs, reduced significantly the production of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a and exhibited normal anticoagulant activity in PT assays and prolonged APTT remarkably in dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, extracts of the Sargassum siliquosum J.G. Agardh is a potential alternative source in producing anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant substances in the future. Keywords: Sargassum siliquosum, sulfated polysaccharides, ashing-acid digestion, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cytokines, inflammation, coagulation Download PDF


Title: EFFECTS OF THE COMBINED THERAPY D-002 PLUS GRAPE SEED EXTRACT (GSE) ON ASPIRIN INDUCED GASTRIC ULCER IN RATS
Author: Vivian Molina, PhD*; Yazmín Ravelo, MsC; Rosa Mas, PhD
Keyword: D-002, grape seed extract, combined therapy, gastric ulcer.
Page No: 113-120
Abstract: Abstract Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs represent a pivotal cause of gastric ulceration. Gastroprotective effects of D-002 and grape seed extract (GSE) monotherapies have been documented, but the effects of their combined therapy remained unexplored. This study investigated the effects of administering together D-002 plus GSE on aspirin-induced gastric ulceration in rats. Two experiments were conducted for investigating the effects of GSE alone (1, 5 or 25 mg/kg) (first experiment) and of the combined therapy D-002 (5 mg/kg) plus GSE (1 mg/kg) (second experiment) on aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Effects on gastric juice volume and gastric mucus quantity were also determined. GSE (1, 5 and 25 mg/kg) significantly reduced (34%, 68.9% and 73.1%, respectively) ulcer indexes. Low doses of D-002 (5 mg/kg) and GSE (1 mg/kg) decreased significantly but modestly (36.3% and 38%, respectively) ulcer indexes, while same doses given as combined therapy reduced significantly and markedly (90.5%) gastric ulceration versus the control group, and versus each monotherapy. D-002 (5 mg/kg) and the combined therapy increased significantly mucus secretion, but all treatments failed to modify gastric juice volume. Concluding, the combined therapy D-002 plus GSE inhibited aspirin-induced gastric ulceration in rats more effectively than each monotherapy, the interaction being of synergic nature. Key words: D-002, grape seed extract, combined therapy, gastric ulcer. Download PDF


Title: MULTIPLE RARE ADVERSE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG TERM USE OF CARBAMAZEPINE
Author: Khurshid A. Mattoo, Neha Garg
Keyword: Allergy, hypersensitivity, epilepsy, tegretol
Page No: 121-124
Abstract: Abstract Carbamazepine an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer drug is used primarily in the treatment of seizures in epilepsy and bipolar disorders. Also used in conditions like trigeminal neuralgia, schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, the drug belongs to one of the world health organization’s list of essential medicines in a basic health system. Its use is associated with short term and long term adverse effects which range from mild to moderate to severe to fatal. The adverse reactions are also either common or rare. This article discusses a case report of a young adult female who reported with multiple rare adverse reactions to the drug involving joint, face, feet and oral cavity. Every clinician should know the possibility of such adverse reactions to help him differentiate associated conditions or diseases. Key words: Allergy, hypersensitivity, epilepsy, tegretol Download PDF