ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Applied Science)


Title: CARDIOVASCULAR RISK USING SERUM LIPOPROTEIN (A) CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS ON HAART AT LIVINGSTONE GENERAL HOSPITAL, LIVINGSTONE, ZAMBIA.
Author: Sepiso K Masenga , Trevor Kaile, Timothy Kantenga
Keyword: Lipoprotein (a), Risk category, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, HIV, Cardiovascular Disease.
Page No: 77-86
Abstract: Purpose: Data on Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) levels and it’s accompanied risk for CVD in HIV positive patients on HAART in Zambia being limited, the study was conducted to provide the distribution of Lp (a) and to determine the risk categories for developing CVD using Lp (a) and LDL-c concentration levels in HIV patients on HAART at Livingstone General Hospital. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and February 2015 at Livingstone General Hospital. Routine serum samples were collected and sent to the University Teaching Hospital Biochemistry laboratory for the determination of Lp (a) & LDL-c concentration levels on Beckman coulter AU480 analyzer. Data was analyzed using STATA v.12 and SPSS v.17. Results: Based on their Lp(a) levels, 48% were at low risk; 29% at high risk and 2% at very high risk for CVD. Only 7.7% were at risk for CVD based on their LDL-c level. Age (p=0.009) and duration on HAART (P<0.001) were significantly associated with high Lp (a). Conclusion: The percentage of HIV positive patients on HAART who were at risk for developing CVD using Lp (a) concentration levels was high. However, their LDL-c concentrations were fairly distributed with the majority having values within normal reference. Key words: Lipoprotein (a), Risk category, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, HIV, Cardiovascular Disease. Download PDF


Title: SYNTHESIS OF ZINC OXIDE QUANTUM DOT, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND APPLICATION FOR WATER TREATMENT
Author: J. Barman
Keyword: Zinc oxide quantum,X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and UV–VIS absorption.
Page No: 87-92
Abstract: In the present study we report the synthesis of zinc oxide quantum dot by a chemical route. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and UV–VIS absorption. Trans mission electron microscopic image as well as XRD studies confirmed the nanometer size particles formation within the polymer matrix. The average particle size was found to lie in the range of 3.7–6.9 nm. A UV-VIS optical spectroscopy study was carried out to determine the band gap of the nanocrystalline ZnS thin film and it showed a blue shift with respect to the bulk value. The synthesized nanoparticles showed tremendous antimicrobial activity and can be used for water purification. Download PDF


Title: THE INFLUENCE OF EARNING SMOOTHING ON COMPANIES INFORMATION NONE RELIABILITY
Author: Majid Naseri, Dr. Asghar Asadi, Dr. Seyyed Mehdi Hoseiny, Dr. Mohammad Mahmoudi
Keyword: Earning smoothing, information none reliability, accepted companies in Tehran stock exchange
Page No: 93-110
Abstract: This study has evaluated earning smoothing influence on information none reliability of companies in Iran investment market and has provided new observes in influencing earning smoothing on informati on none reliability. Topic eras of study includes all food industry companies and pharmacy except investment companies. place eras of study includes all accepted companies in Tehran stock exchange and its time eras is from the beginning of 2008 to the end of 2012 in Tehran stock exchange. After data application definition and determining samples, required data has been gathered from different resources. After data accounting, variables normality and statistical analysis by multi-regression method, we achieve to the amount and direction of influence and test its meaningfulness. In general case, we conclude there is meaningful and negative relation among earning smoothing and none reliability of information of business unit. therefore, we conclude earning smoothing, none reliability of information provided by business unit would decrease .models test indicates based on ball model, kotari, and robin as a whole, net earnings of companies is conservative and based on three models, conservative character is along with decreasing information content and meanwhile, net earnings report by high conservativeness does not have more yields for investors. Key words: Earning smoothing, information none reliability, accepted companies in Tehran stock exchange Download PDF


Title: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MILK PRODUCTION LEVELS ON VARIANCE IN IRANIAN DAIRY CATTLE
Author: Sheida Varkoohi
Keyword: Production level, variance, dairy cattle
Page No: 111-115
Abstract: In this research, effect of different milk production levels in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran was studied by using collected data from 1991 to 2010. The data set included the following: 161328 record s of first, 123369 records of second and 81013 records of third lactations. Records were divided in three categories based on mean herd- year production of low (less than 0.5 SD to mean), medium (between less than 0.5 SD to mean and more than 0.5 SD to mean) and high (more than 0.5 to mean). Bartlett test for heterogeneity of variance components was significant among all subgroups. Genetic parameters and heritabilities were estimated for all production levels in the first three lactations. Additive variance was the highest in high milk yield and residual variance was the highest in high milk yield, but in the high milk yield within the second and third lactations, all variance components were the highest amount. Estimated heritability and variance components for production levels were similar in univariate and multivariate animal model analyses. Key words: Production level, variance, dairy cattle Download PDF


Title: RELATIVE LEVELS, FACTORS AND IMPACTS OF NITRATES AND FLOURIDES IN SOME GROUNDWATER BODIES IN THE LUBOMBO AND MANZINI REGIONS OF SWAZILAND
Author: A. O. Fadiran,*, C. L. Dlamini, A. F. Murye and T. I. Nkambule
Keyword: Nitrate fertilizers, MCL, methemoglobinemia, dental and skeletal fluorosis, NO3-N and F- contamination.
Page No: 116-124
Abstract: Enhanced nitrates and fluorides are crucial human health hazards in drinking water. Water samples from 24 groundwater systems, made up of 12 from each of the Lubombo and Manzini regions, were analyze d for NO3-N (mg/L) and F- (mg/L). Spectroscopic method was used for the analysis of NO3-N while the Fluoride ion selective electrode was used for the F- analysis. The relative abundance and other usual parameters employed revealed a greater degree of contamination of the Lubombo groundwater systems by NO3-N, relative to those of the Manzini region. This is depicted by the % being 16.7% and 8.3% for the Lubombo and Manzini regions respectively. On the other hand, the Manzini region groundwater systems were slightly more contaminated with F- than those of the Lubombo region. Most of the sampling points had NO3-N (mg/L) with 83.3% and 91.7% of the sampling points having NO3-N = F- in the Lubombo and Manzini regions respectively. Keywords: Nitrate fertilizers, MCL, methemoglobinemia, dental and skeletal fluorosis, NO3-N and F- contamination. Download PDF


Title: DEVELOPMENT OF BIOPLASTIC BASED ON CASSAVA FLOUR AND ITS STARCH DERIVATIVES FOR FOOD PACKAGING
Author: Noryawati Mulyono*, Maggy Thenawidjaja Suhartono, Stella Angelina
Keyword: Bioplastic, cassava, glycerol, packaging, UV absorption
Page No: 125-132
Abstract: This research aimed to develop bioplastic from cassava flour and its derivatives, i.e. starch and nanoparticles. Tapioca starch was extracted from cassava flour and further processed into its nanopar ticle by ethanol precipitation. All biopolymers in this study, which were cassava flour, tapioca starch, and tapioca starch nanoparticle, were used to produce bioplastics with the presence of glycerol as plastisizer. The results showed that both cassava flour and tapioca starch bioplastics were potent to be applied as sweet soy sauce and vegetable oil packagings, but not as water and chili sauce packagings. All bioplastics were transparent, similar to conventional plastic. The resulted bioplastics absorbed UV-A so that the products inside could be protected from photooxidative degradation. Keywords: Bioplastic, cassava, glycerol, packaging, UV absorption Download PDF


Title: THE FACILITATION OF SOCIAL DIALOGUE AND DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATION, THE CHALLENGING ROLES OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND WORKERS GROUPS AS FOCAL POINTS IN ECOWAS REGIONAL INTEGRATION PROCESS.
Author: Umar, Mohammed Bello
Keyword: Integration, Mechanism, Actors, Protocols, Unions, Conflict, Community.
Page No: 133-140
Abstract: Civil Society and Workers groups are sociologically integral to most emerging societies. Their imperativeness and relevance in terms of facilitating social dialogue and providing effective participat ion in the democratic process is expedient in aiding regional integration in West Africa. This write up seeks to focus on Civil Society and Workers group as promoters of West African integration. In so doing, the study examined the socio-economic, political as well as the legal scenarios upon which rest the activities of civil society and workers groups in terms of their participatory activities. Again, in the same vein some decisional instruments and protocols were closely telescoped all with a bid to aiding our understanding of social dialogue and democratic participation within the ECOWAS. The revised ECOWAS treaty was also re-focused as a technical facilitator and a vital mechanism in the process of social dialogue and democratic participation. Some key institutional mechanisms such as the Organization of Trade Unions of West Africa [OTUWA] and the Employers’ Association were examined with a view to appreciating their strategic relevance in terms of the type of roles they play in promoting social dialogue and democracy within the ECOWAS. This study is essentially dependent on secondary data and empirical works already done in the area and other related fields. The STUDY has further established profoundly the relevance of collaboration between local unions, which together can bring together their financial and technical endowments to participate more consistently and evocatively within the ECOWAS integrative framework. In conclusion the study reconfirmed the strategic essence of a broad based partnership in West Africa’s integrative pursuits where all parties are expected to contribute to the process of a more enlarged and people-centered integration. Key Words: Integration, Mechanism, Actors, Protocols, Unions, Conflict, Community. Download PDF


Title: HYPERGLYCEMIA RELATED OXIDATIVE STRESS: BIOMARKERS IN TYPE 1 AND2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Author: Dr. George Gborienemi, S., Oyindo, Charles, Dienize George,
Keyword: Biomarkers, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, Type 1, Type 2 Diabetes.
Page No: 141-148
Abstract: The production of reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress due to formation of free radicals is now known to be a feature of many diseases including diabetes mellitus. In this study, we have used some biomarkers of oxidative stress, TBARs, SOD, GSH-Px, HbA1c, glyoxal and methylglyoxal along with some other parameters, glucose and insulin to objectively estimate and analyse the condition as indicators in the control (normal) subjects and in patients with pathologic disease process of type 1 and 2 diabetes. Applying kinetic, spectrophotometric, radioimmunoassay and chromatographic methods we have assayed the indicator biomarkers. Results obtained demonstrate the fact that higher increases in the concentration of the analytes up to 3-fold were found in type 2 diabetics in the concentration of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, TBARs, HbA1c at p=0.005, p>0.05, p=0.002 and p=0.003 respectively when compared with the control. There were, however a moderate decrease in the concentration of S0D and GSH-Px. We summaries that a combination therapy for the oxidative stress management to reduce TBARS, HbA1c and the dicarbonyls can inhibit further complications in diabetics. Keywords: Biomarkers, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, Type 1, Type 2 Diabetes. Download PDF


Title: PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER COLLECTED FROM BHATYE ESTUARY, RATNAGIRI.
Author: Madhura Mukadam and Arvind Kulkarni
Keyword: Estuary, DO, conductivity, turbidity and Salinity etc.
Page No: 149-151
Abstract: The temporal and spatial distribution of temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity, turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids(TDS) and DO of surface water collected from different points of Bhatye estuary were measured during April 2010 to March, 2011. Though the temperature varied from 25.0 to 30.0oC (av. 27.5), the pH variation was in range of 7.49 - 8.26 (avg. 7.87). Relatively low values were obtained during monsoon due to influence of riverine flow. Marked variation in salinity was observed ranging from 2 ppt to 40 ppt, lowest was observed towards riverside during monsoon. Total dissolved solids were in the expected limits and were decreasing towards river side. TDS values were high in the riverine and TSS values were high during summer period. Key Words: Estuary, DO, conductivity, turbidity and Salinity etc. Download PDF