ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Applied Science)


Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) GENE POLYMORPHISM OF EASTERN INDIAN BENGALI AND WESTERN INDIAN MEWARI TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS IN INDIA
Author: Pulakes Purkait*, Kalpataru Halder; Abhishikta Ghosh Roy; P N. Venugopal; B.N. Sarkar; J.M. Naidu
Keyword: Type 2 Diabetes, ACE polymorphism, Anthropometry, Bengali, Mewari
Page No: 01-09
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a rapidly emerging global health problem and it is expected to cross the pandemic level within a span of another two decades. World-wide its frequency is expected to rise from 17 1 million to 366 million within the next two decades and India alone will take almost 25% shares from it to become the leading country with highest number of diabetic patients. For the present study 111 type 2 diabetes (59 Bangali and 52 Mewari) were enrolled. Anthropometric measurement and Clinical data- including information on duration of diabetes, presence of any complication, history of other disorders, systolic and diastolic blood pressure- were collected. The weight (kg) and height (cm) were recorded, the body mass index (BMI) was calculated and Genomic DNA was isolated from 5ml of peripheral blood samples of 111 type 2 diabetes individuals. Further, PCR has been performed to know the frequency of ACE I/D polymorphism. Our study reveals that anthropometric measurements and few bio-chemical parameters were significantly varying in type 2 diabetes patients among western Indian Mewari population and eastern Indian Bengali population. Distribution of ACE genotypes as well as their allele frequency doesn’t differ significantly. It can presume that ACE gene I/D polymorphism, an Alu insertion polymorphism, can be used as a suitable marker for studying genetic variation among different human populations because of its stable nature as well as representing a unique evolutionary event. Key words: Type 2 Diabetes, ACE polymorphism, Anthropometry, Bengali, Mewari Download PDF


Title: HANDLING AND STORAGE PRACTICES OF FOOD COMMODITIES RETAILERS AT OPEN MARKETS IN GHANA
Author: Dr. Augusta Adjei Frempong
Keyword: Food commodities, open market, food-borne diseases, retailers, consumers, food handling, food storage
Page No: 10-20
Abstract: The handling and storage of food commodities at the open markets quite often pose challenges to consumers because that is the only or primary source of purchasing foods from retailers. This paper is based on investigations into food selling practices in Ghana at three open markets (Accra, Cape Coast, and Kumasi) to assess the challenges faced by retailers in the handling and storage of their wares. The research used observation and interviews to investigate food handling and storage practices. In all, food commodity retailers (n= 45) were observed and interviewed from February to July, 2014. The major findings highlighted lack of proper storage facilities as the basic challenge faced by the women involved in the sale of food commodities. While the women who sold protein foods had limited space in deep freezers for storing their items, vegetables and fruits were stored in baskets, sacks and cupboards. Strategizing Government and Private Organizations to find a lasting solution to the proper storage of food commodities by operating commercial cold/ chill room facilities for open markets in Ghana is important. Offering training support to both retailers and stakeholders in food handling practices as a means to prevent the outbreak of food borne diseases positions the concept for researchers and serves as the best practice that can be applied in West African countries. Key words: Food commodities, open market, food-borne diseases, retailers, consumers, food handling, food storage Download PDF


Title: INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT INORGANIC PHOSPHATIC SOURCES AND ORGANIC MANURES ON FRACTIONS OF PHOSPHORUS IN SODIC SOIL
Author: M. Manimaran
Keyword: Olsen’s P, Organic P, Reductant soluble P, FYM
Page No: 21-26
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in sodic soil to assess the effect of different sources of phosphorus and organics on fractions of phosphorus under maize. The treatments included here were Control ( T1), SSP alone (T2), SSP + GM @ 10 t ha-1 (T3), SSP + FYM @ 12.5 t ha- 1(T4), SSP + VC @ 0.5 t ha-1(T5), DAP alone (T6), DAP + GM @ 10 t ha-1 (T7), DAP + FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1 (T8) and DAP + VC @ 0.5 t ha-1 (T9).The results of the experiment revealed that the application of SSP + FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1 (T4) recorded higher release of P from its fractions such as Ca-P, Fe-P, Al-P, saloid bound P, reductant soluble P, Olsen’s P. The mean values ranged from 664.86 to 643.21 kg ha-1 in Ca-P, 162.51 to 158.86 kg ha-1 in Fe-P, 200.34 to 181.39 kg ha-1 in Al-P, 250.96 to 246.89 kg ha-1 in saloid bound P, 179.00 to 176.21 kg ha-1 in reductant soluble P, and 23.15 to 9.93 kg ha-1 in Olsen’s P over a period of time. The concentration of organic P was getting raised in all the treatments. The treatment with the application of SSP along with FYM (T4) recorded a higher organic P concentration at all stages of crop growth with the mean values ranged from 465.08 to 468.25 kg ha-1. Key words: Olsen’s P, Organic P, Reductant soluble P, FYM Download PDF


Title: PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF FARM PRODUCTION CORN ((Zea mays)) IN GUANARE MUNICIPALITY, PORTUGUESA STATE, VENEZUELA
Author: Danny Villegas, Yary Pérez, Salli Villegas, César Acosta
Keyword: Principal components, characterization, farms and corn.
Page No: 27-32
Abstract: In this paper presents a characterizations of farms and plots corn (Zea mays) , in order to interpret and grading this production systems in Guanare municipality of Portuguesa state in the winter cyc le 2008, by Principal component analysis, for the which was selected a sample of 41 farms or plots, using information technical, socioeconomic, agroecological and institutional from of the records of producers the ASOGUANARE, SA association. In this regard, were considered twenty six (26) variables, of which were discarded sixteen (16) since show small variability. Over data matrix for ten variables was applied a principal components analysis (PCA) and statistical description. In this way, the PCA identified five (5) factors affecting corn production: size of farm or plot, cultivated area, limitations by equipment and machinery, limitations by labor and planting date. Similarly was observed a negative effect of the planting date (rainfall distribution) and limitations by equipment and machinery on yield. Finally, were identified and classified the 41 farms or plots into three groups discriminated mainly by the dimension or size of corn farm. Key words: Principal components, characterization, farms and corn. Download PDF


Title: CALCULATION OF MOLECULAR LIPOPHILICITY AND DRUG LIKENESS FOR FEW SCHIFF BASES DERIVED FROM 4- AMINO ANTIPYRINE
Author: Dr. (Mrs) G. Valli & A. Jayalakshmi
Keyword: 4-amino antipyrine, Lipinski,s rule, MiLog P and BHT
Page No: 33-39
Abstract: Schiff bases derived from 4-aminoantipyrine were selected for the calculation of molecular liphophilicity and drug likeness using molinspiration software. Seventeen Schiff bases structure were drawn using online molinspiration software for the bio-activity prediction as the literature resources reveals the importance of 4-amino antipyrine Schiff bases. All the seventeen compounds obeys lipinski’s rule and showed drug likeness score. MiLog P values of these compounds were found to be below 5 that means these compounds showed good permeability across cell membrane. TPSA in the range of 39.228-85.127(well below 160 ?2) and n violations =0 ,molecular mass <500 ,n rotb < 5 .No of hydrogen bond donors = 5 ( The sum of OHs and NHs ),No of hydrogen bond acceptor <8 ( The sum of Os and Ns ) were observed for these compounds. These indicated that these compounds can easily bind to receptor and were taken further for the calculation of bioactivity score by calculating the activity score of GPCR ligand, ion channel modulator, nuclear receptor legend, kinase inhibitor, protease inhibitor and enzyme inhibitor. All the compounds were found to exhibit moderately bio-active i.e.,< 0 as as GPCR ligands, Ion channel modulator, Kinase inhibitor, Nuclear receptor ligand, Protease inhibitor and Enzyme inhibitor .Compared to the Standard BHT[(butylated hydroxyl toluene) (5.435).], these compounds were found to have good drug likeness score.(1.683-4.544). Keywords: 4-amino antipyrine, Lipinski,s rule, MiLog P and BHT Download PDF


Title: COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MEDICAL WASTES IN HEALTH CARE INSTITUTIONS AND THE RISKS TO HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
Author: Chiejina EN, Orji IN, Anieche JE, Nwankwo CU, Makachi MC, Agbapuonwu NE
Keyword: Collection, Disposal, Medical Wastes, Bloodborne Pathogens,Health care Institutions, Health Care Providers.
Page No: 40-45
Abstract: The study examined collection and disposal of medical wastes in health care institutions and the risks to health care providers. The population of the study was Nurses, Medical Doctors and Medical La boratory Scientists drawn from health care institutions in Anambra State of Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample size of 210 respondents. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. Frequency distribution and percentages were used for the data analyses, and the result indicated high rate (84.3%) usage of sharps containers in health care institutions as well as low incidence of injuries (35.2%) among the health care workers during the process of disposal of medical wastes. Keywords: Collection, Disposal, Medical Wastes, Bloodborne Pathogens,Health care Institution, Health Care Providers. Download PDF


Title: DIBUTYLTIN DILAURATE AND TRIETHYLAMINE CATALYZED PHENOL-CARDANOL FORMALDEHYDE/BLOCKED PMDI HYBRID RESIN FOR PLYWOOD
Author: Ganesh Gopal T.M.*, S.K. Nath, Sujatha D and Ramamurthinanda Kumar
Keyword: Plywood, DBTL, Triethylamine, Phenol, Blocked PMDI resin.
Page No: 46-55
Abstract: The organometallics and tertiary amines which can improve the polyurethane formation can be utilized in plywood manufacturing for the urethane formation from blocked PMDI resin to enhance the plywood bond strength. The catalytic activity of phenol blocked PMDI (Polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate) resins and Phenol cardanol formaldehyde (PCF)/phenol blocked PMDI hybrid resin with DBTL (Dibutyltin dilaurate) and triethylamine catalysts for the manufacture of plywood is studied using DSC and FTIR. The DBTL catalysts decreased the curing temperature of blocked resin. The FTIR analysis showed that DBTL enhances the urethane formation in PCF-PMDI resin. The addition of DBTL improved the bond strength of PCF/phenol blocked PMDI hybrid resin glued plywood. The decomposition temperature of resins is studied using TGA analysis. It showed that the blocked resin without any catalyst showed better thermal stability and also the PCF/phenol blocked PMDI resin is more thermally stable than blocked resin alone. Keywords: Plywood, DBTL, Triethylamine, Phenol, Blocked PMDI resin. Download PDF


Title: ANALYTICAL AND GRAPHYCAL SOLUTION OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL WAVE EQUATION USING MAPLE 18 SOFTWARE
Author: Ipaye Samson O and Ajibola Saheed. O
Keyword: Maple18 software, ODEs and PDEs
Page No: 56-65
Abstract: This work provides the preliminary information for future research work on analytical and graphical solution of series ODEs and PDEs using maple18 software. The computations with the maple 18 softwar e consist of solving procedure, animation, plotting of 2-D and 3-D graphs. This project work is considered as a blend of mathematics and computer science leading to powerful methods for solving complex problems on one-dimensional wave equation with d’Alembert formula. It is also considered for creating a mathematical model of wave problems and methods of solving the wave problems by implementing it on Maple worksheet which can be used in several undergraduate and graduate courses as well as solving new research problems. Download PDF


Title: STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES COMPARISON OF BORON AND ALUMINUM CO-DOPED ZINC OXIDE FILMS DEPOSITED ON POROUS SILICON AND SILICON SUBSTRATE
Author: Rashid Hashim Jabbar and Anwar Hussein Ali
Keyword: Porous silicon, PS, ZnO nanostructures, boron and aluminum co-doped, structural properties.
Page No: 66-73
Abstract: This paper presents the comparison of structural properties between silicon and porous silicon(PS) structural substrates used in the same conditions to deposition of aluminum boron co-doped ZnO (AZB ) thin films of nanostructures with doping (2,4,6,8 at %.)Deposited at 450 oC on silicon and porous silicon substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis in (150±5 nm) thickness. The structure of AZB nanostructure films has been found to exhibit the hexagonal wurtzite structure. The surface topography of the films and the porous silicon was studied by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), the surface concentration shows that the roughness of the thin films increase with the increase of doping concentrations. The structural details and microstructure were obtained from X-ray diffraction, the results shows the grain size decreased with the increase of doping concentration. Keywords: Porous silicon, PS, ZnO nanostructures, boron and aluminum co-doped, structural properties. Download PDF


Title: TIME VARYING COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT ‘Λ’ AS DARK ENERGY CANDIDATE
Author: R.K. Mishra & A.K. Pandey
Keyword: Dark energy, Λ CDM model, cosmological
Page No: 74-76
Abstract: Abstract The best candidate source for dark energy is the energy contained in vacuum fluctuations (otherwise known as zero point energy). As mentioned in this paper cosmologists trying hard to know th e amount of energy in the vacuum, and they came to a result that is 10120 times larger than amount of dark energy required for accelerating the expansion of our universe. Through the recent studies, it is firmly established that the hypothetical fluid (dark energy) is tied to the Einstein’s cosmological constant ?. It is also much speculated that the most interesting candidate of dark energy is the Vacuum Energy and the cosmological model in which ? is assumed to be the source of dark energy, is called ?CDM model. Download PDF