ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Pharmacy)


Title: A SCIENTIFIC REVIEW ON COMMON CHEWING PLANT OF ASIANS: PIPER BETLE LINN.
Author: Rahul Shukla*, Sandeep Sachan, Ashutosh Mishra, Sankul Kumar
Keyword: Creeper, laxative, appetizer and aphrodisiac.
Page No: 01-10
Abstract: Pan consists of leaf of Piper betle Linn. (Family; Piperaceae); a dioecious, perinnial creeper, climbing by many short adventitious rootlets, widely cultivated in hotter and damper parts of the count ry. The plant is prescribed in the ancient Ayurvedic literature as a general tonic and voice, laxative, appetizer, beside this they pacify vata and aggravate pitta. In addition to these, the aphrodisiac effect of betel chewing has been indicated in ancient texts. The scrutiny of present overview revealed pharmacognostical, phytochemical and some notable pharmacological activities of the plant. Keyword: Creeper, laxative, appetizer and aphrodisiac.Download PDF


Title: PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CRUDE SAPONIN FRACTION FROM FENUGREEK SEED EXTRACT ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN RATS.
Author: Ahmed Sabir, Muhammad Adnan, Naser A. Al Wabel, Shahid Karim*, Mohammad Ali
Keyword: Wistar Rats, Fenu Greek seed, Crude Saponin fraction, nephrolithhiasis, Blood Urea Nitrogen, Serum Creatinine, Ethylene glycol.
Page No: 11-20
Abstract: Introduction: Fenugreek is a folklore medicine prescribed for treatment of renal stones in Sudan. There has been many studies evaluating the effect of fenugreek seeds and leaves in renal stones. These studies have used the aqueous, methanolic extracts of seed and/or whole seed to establish the effect in nephrolithiasis. In the current study we evaluated the effect of saponins from the methanolic extract of the fenugreek seeds on nephrolithiasis in Wistar Rats. Method: 24 Wistar rats were divided into 4 goups: Normal, Low dose TSf, high Dose Tsf and Ethylene glycol. The duration of treatment was 28 days. Following parameters like serum BUN, serum Creatinine, dry oxalate weight in kidney and histopathological examination were evaluated. Statistical analysis: the result presented as mean ± SEM, and the comparisons between the experimental groups were performed using Student’s t-test. Results & Conclusion: Crude saponin fraction has shown a significant decrease in serum BUN and Serum creatinine as compared to Ethylene glycol treated rats. The crude saponins fraction of Fenugreek seeds significantly reduced the formation and deposition of (CaOx) stone as compared to Ethylene Glycol treated rats. Key words: Wistar Rats, Fenu Greek seed, Crude Saponin fraction, nephrolithhiasis, Blood Urea Nitrogen, Serum Creatinine, Ethylene glycol. Download PDF


Title: SOLUBILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CLOPIDOGREL BISULFATE PREPARED WITH VARIOUS POLYETHYLEN GLYCOL DENSITY AND DIFFERENT KIND OF HYDROXY PROPYL CELULLOSE BY SOLVENT EVAPORATION METHOD
Author: Yoga Windhu Wardhana, Iyan Sopyan, Fanny Roselia, Augusta Widihastuti
Keyword: Clopidogrel bisulfate, Polyethylen glycol, Hydroxypropyl celullose, Solid dispersions, Solubility, Dissolution rate.
Page No: 21-26
Abstract: Various strategies have been used for improve drug solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to increase solubility dan dissolution rate of Clopidogrel Bisulfate (CLPB) by solid dispersion with various density of Polyethylenglycol (PEG) and some Hydroxypropyl Celullose (HPC) as matrix. As carriers, PEG used in three variation such as PEG 4000, PEG 6000 and mixed both (1:1), meanwhile for HPC used in different kind of specifications such as HPC–SL, HPC–SSL, LHPC–11, LHPC–21. Active ingredient and each of matrices prepared by solvent evaporation method. Despite of solubility and dissolution test, Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) used for evaluate interaction between drug and all of carriers. Outcome of this study shown that all of matrices can improve solubility. From the solubility test found that mixed PEG (1 : 1) as the highest solubility than each of PEGs used. Whereas from all of kind of HPC found that only HPC-SL which gave the highest solubility.At only the most solubility improvement from different kind of those matrix was evaluate for dissolution test. The dissolution result exhibited that mixed PEG (1:1) was reach the highest concentration at the same time (60 minutes) from the test. From FTIR spectrums and PXRD difractograms shown that all of matrices changed drug nature. The most distinguish nature of drug displayed by HPC-SL difractogram where all of drug crystallinity alters to amorphous characteristic suit to HPC-SL patterns. Keywords : Clopidogrel bisulfate, Polyethylen glycol, Hydroxypropyl celullose, Solid dispersions, Solubility, Dissolution rate. Download PDF


Title: PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NAPROXEN SODIUM IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEMS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES
Author: Arun B. Nikumbha, Ganesh K. Kulkarnia, Meenakshi V. Rathib and Ravindra C. Bhujbalc
Keyword: Naproxen sodium, density, viscosity, B-coefficient.
Page No: 27-38
Abstract: The study of the volumetric behavior of pain killers as electrolytes in solution provides information useful to elucidate ion–ion, ion–solvent, and solvent–solvent interactions. Apparent molar volume s (?v) and viscosity B-coefficients for naproxen sodium solutions in NS (Normal Saline), DNS (NS with dextrose), RL (Ringer lactate) and pure water system have been determined from density (?) and viscosity (?) measurements at 298.15 to 313.15 K using a pycnometer and Ubbelohde viscometer respectively. Various concentrations of naproxen sodium solutions ranging from 0.0060 to 0.0199 M were prepared. The apparent molar volumes were calculated from the density data. In addition, the concentration dependence of the apparent molar volumes was examined using Masson’s equation. The Jones-Dole equation was used to analyze viscosity data to obtain viscosity ‘A’ and ‘B’ coefficients. The concentration dependence of the apparent and partial molar volumes can be used to study ion–ion interactions, whereas the partial molar volumes at infinite dilution provide information on ion–solvent interactions. Keywords: Naproxen sodium, density, viscosity, B-coefficient.Download PDF


Title: EXPLORATION OF THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF PROBUCOL IN SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN SWISS ALBINO MICE
Author: Kuldeep K. Sharma*, Neha Aggarwal, Upendra K. Jain
Keyword: Probucol, Donepezil, Amnesia, Oxidative stress, Beta-amyloid, Inflammation,Scopolamine
Page No: 39-51
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of Probucol, a phenolic non-statin lipid lowering agent with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in Scopolamine induce d memory impairment in swiss albino mice. In this study, Scopolamine, at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. was injected 30 min before training session from day 1 to day 4 for induction of anterograde amnesia. Cognitive behaviors of mice were assessed using Morris water maze test. Brain acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity was measured by Ellmann's method. Brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured by Niehius and Samuelson’s, Beutler's and Wang’s method respectively to assess total oxidative stress. Brain myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured by Barone’s method to assess inflammatory response. Brain total protein content was measured by Lowry’s method. Donepezil (0.1 mg/kg; i.p.) was used as positive control in the present investigation. Probucol (10 and 20 mg/kg; i.p.) successfully attenuated scopolamine induced cognitive deficits. Higher levels of brain AChE, MPO activity and TBARS levels and lower levels of brain GSH and SOD were observed in scopolamine treated animals, which were significantly attenuated by Donepezil and Probucol. Study highlights the potential of Probucol in memory dysfunctions associated with amnesia. Keywords: Probucol, Donepezil, Amnesia, Oxidative stress, Beta-amyloid, Inflammation,Scopolamine Download PDF


Title: SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF BRIMONIDINE TARTRATE AND TIMOLOL MALEATE IN COMBINED PHARMACETICAL DOSAGE FORM USING TWO DIFFERENT GREEN SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS
Author: Vinayaka D.G*, Satishkumar Shetty A, Manzoor Ahmed, Anil Kumar S.M.
Keyword: Keywords: Brimonidine tartrate, Timolol maleate, Simultaneous equation method, Q-ratio method, Validation
Page No: 52-59
Abstract: Two simple, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous Determination of Brimonidine tartrate (BRT) and Timolol maleate (TIM) in bulk and ph armaceutical formulations. Namely Simultaneous equation (method 1), Q-absorbance ratio (method 2). In method 1, both the drugs exhibit good linearity over the concentration range of 4-20 mg/mL and 1 to 50 mg/mL of Brimonidine tartrate and Timolol maleate at 255nm (r2 =0.9998 and 0.9998 respectively) and 295nm (r2 =0.999 and 0.999 respectively) wavelengths respectively. Method 2, involves the formation of Q-absorbance equation using the absorptivity values at 271nm (isoabsorptive point) (r2 =0.999 and 0.9998 respectively) and 295nm (?max of Timolol maleate) (r2 =0.9998 and 0.999 respectively) and Beer’s Lambert’s law was obeyed over the concentration range of 4-20 mg/mL and 10-50 mg/mL respectively. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines for evaluation of accuracy, precision, sensitivity. These are economically viable methods that do not require any prior separation procedure and costly solvents. Keywords: Brimonidine tartrate, Timolol maleate, Simultaneous equation method, Q-ratio method, Validation. Download PDF


Title: TO STUDY THE IN VITRO EFFECT OF SOME ALCOHOL CONTAINING VOLATILE OILS AS THE SKIN PENETRATION ENHANCERS OF CURCUMIN
Author: Ganju Kuldeep* and Ganju Eisha
Keyword: Geraniol, linalool, nerol, TDDS
Page No: 60-63
Abstract: The effect of geraniol, linalool and nerol on the skin permeation of curcumin was investigated. The mechanism of skin permeation enhancement of curcumin by essential oils treatment was evaluated by Activation energy measurement. The effectiveness of the oils as the penetration enhancers was found to be in the following descending order: geraniol>linalool>nerol. The results of thermodynamic studies and of geraniol incorporated group suggested additional mechanisms for geraniol facilitated permeation. To conclude geraniol has been diagnosed to be thebest penetration enhancer of all others to allow curcumin pass through the skin epidermis. Keywords: Geraniol, linalool, nerol, TDDSDownload PDF


Title: CANDIDA ALBICANS AND NON ALBICANS SPECIES: A STUDY OF BIOFILM PRODUCTION AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE PROPERTIES
Author: Sathiya T, Arul Sheeba Malar S, Moorthy K, Punitha T, Vinodhini R, Saranya A.S*
Keyword: Candida speciation; Hichrome agar; prevalence; antifungal susceptibility; virulence factors
Page No: 64-75
Abstract: Background: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, which contributes to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an increase in antimicrobial resistance and the restricted number of antifungal drugs, which retain many side effects. Candida species are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections due to the presence of various virulence factors such as exo-enzymes secretion, capacity of adherence and morphogenesis. The production of exo-enzymes such as proteinase and phospholipase are factors which have been classically understood. Others such as haemolytic activity and the resistance to hydrogen peroxide are still little studied especially in urine isolates. Biofilm is the structured microbial communities that are attached and encases in a matrix of exo-polymetric material and are important for the development of clinical infection. Materials & Methods: On this background, the current study was done to analyze the virulence factors of Candida species from the urine samples (n=150) collected from unmarried girls of Vivekanandha College, Tiruchengode. Results: Forty samples were found to be positive for Candida spp., among them C.tropicalis is the prime one in its prevalence rate followed by C.glabrata 25%, C.albicans 17.5% and C.krusei 12.5%. Among the 40 positive Candida species virulence factors like biofilm formation, haemolytic activity, exo-enzyme production (proteinase and phospholipase) were studied. Biofilm formation was prominently seen in C.tropicalis whereas in exo-enzyme (proteinase and phospholipase) production C.albicans ranks the first than any other Candida species. However proteinase, phospholipase and hemolytic activity were highly expressed suggesting that these virulence factors are important for the pathogenicity. Conclusions: Generally the different isolates expressed similar virulence potential of varying range and it reinforcing the necessity to analyze the key factor of virulence in depth and also the other factors related to the yeasts are involved in the development of the disease. Keywords: Candida speciation; Hichrome agar; prevalence; antifungal susceptibility; virulence factors Download PDF


Title: EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE PRACTICE AMONG NURSES IN PHARMACOVIGILANCE AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN DELHI
Author: Sunita Kumari, Anurag Saxena, Palaniappan Senthilkumar*
Keyword: Pharmacovigilance; Adverse Drug Reaction; Educational intervention; nurses; Tertiary care hospital; KAP.
Page No: 76-86
Abstract: Objective: To study knowledge of nurses and their attitudes for reporting Adverse Drug Reactions and also to find out the participation in reporting Adverse Drug Reactions in Tertiary care hospital i n Delhi. Methods: This study was conducted by using validated KAP questionnaire. The reliability of validated KAP questionnaires was analysed by conducting pilot study on 50 Nurses and calculating Cronbach Alfa value (0.823), in order to identify the Knowledge, attitude, practice of Pharmacovigilance. Based on the previous study conducted the sample size (230) was calculated by using (SPSS) v21.0 with the significance level P < 0.001. Result: In this study total 230 Nurses responded. The overall response rate was significant in nurses (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The overall response of nurses showed that there is a lack of awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the nurses and they need to update knowledge of practice for drug safety and Pharmacovigilance practices. There is a need for an educational intervention to increase the knowledge and awareness; and to incorporate the gained knowledge into their everyday clinical practice. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance; Adverse Drug Reaction; Educational intervention; nurses; Tertiary care hospital; KAP. Download PDF


Title: DEVELOPMENT OF DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND HPLC METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF NICLOSAMIDE
Author: Shaza Wagiealla Shantier*, Elrashied Ali Elobaid Garelnabi, Elrasheed Ahmed Gadkariem
Keyword: Derivative spectrophotometry, HPLC, Niclosamide tablets.
Page No: 87-92
Abstract: Simple, sensitive and accurate derivative spectrophotometric and HPLC methods were developed for the determination of niclosamide in bulk and dosage forms. The spectrophotometric method was based on the measurement of the first derivative spectrum for the methanolic solution of niclosamide at ?max 351nm. The HPLC-separation was conducted on Shimpac C-18 (25x4.6mm) column using a mobile phase consisted of 70: 30 v/v methanols: water. System suitability was assessed by measurement of factors affecting column efficiency. Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range 2-12µg/ml with a correlation coefficient not less than 0.999. The added recovery results were 100.80 ± 0.59 (n=3), which indicates the absence of interference by the tablets excipients. The results obtained by the developed methods for the tablet dosage form were statistically compared with those of a reported method and evaluated at 95% confidence limits. Keywords: Derivative spectrophotometry, HPLC, Niclosamide tablets. Download PDF


Title: PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF EXTRACT OF TANACETAM PARTHENIUM .L FLOWER DISK FLORETS FOR ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY IN RODENTS
Author: V. Sri Padmavathi*, Y. Nagalakshmi, P. Srilakshmi, P. Sandeep, D. Eswar Tony
Keyword: Tanacetum parthenium, Tailflick test, antinociceptive activity, flower disk florets.
Page No: 93-95
Abstract: Pain is a symptom of many diseases requiring treatment with analgesics. Severe pain due to cancer metastases needs the use of strong analgesics that means opioid drugs. The addiction liability of opi oids led to intensive research for compounds without this side effect. Many approaches have been used to differentiate the various actions of strong analgesics by developing animal models not only for analgesic activity but also for addiction liability. The study was undertaken to evaluate the analgesic activity of Tanacetam parthenium flower extracts using Tail flick method. The study comprised of three treatment groups (control, standard and test – Tanacetaam parthenium aqueous extract) all with five animals in each group. At the end of the study aqueous extract showed significant analgesic activity when compared with standard and control treatment groups. Keywords: Tanacetum parthenium, Tailflick test, antinociceptive activity, flower disk florets. Download PDF