ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Applied Science)

Author: *Shu’aibu I., Hamman, J. B., Goje L. J., Mu’inat A. M. Jauro H. A. and Kabiru M. Y.
Keyword: Antibacterial, Bacteriostatic, Clinical Isolates, Phytochemical screening.
Page No: 152-157
Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial properties of Azadirachta indica leaves against certain bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species, Escherichia coli and Shigella species) using disc diffusion method. The leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica were prepared using different solvents; methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether and were screened for antimicrobial active principles. The phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. Resin was only present in ethanol extract. The antibacterial susceptibility testing of petroleum ether extract, ethanol extract, and methanol extract of neem leaves were carried out by disc diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar. Partial inhibitions were exhibited by all the extracts; no absolute growth inhibition recorded anyway. Different control standard drugs were used on Salmonella species, E. coli, S. aureus and Shigella species and these were ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol respectively. The highest concentration (100µg/disc) of petroleum ether extract recorded partial activity on all the organisms with 13.0mm, 8.0mm, 9.0mm and 9.0mm on Shigella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella spp respectively. Ethanol extract was only partially active on S. aureus and Salmonella spp with 7.0mm and 9.00mm zones of inhibition respectively. Methanol extract was also partially active on S. aureus and Salmonella spp with 7.0mm inhibition zone on each. The results obtained from the different standard antibiotics on different bacterial isolates indicated that only streptomycin was inactive on the S. aureus tested while ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and chloramphenicol showed remarkable zones of inhibitions; (40, 48.0, 46.0)mm, (19.0, 18.0, 20.0)mm and (34.0, 20.0, 20.0)mm respectively. Petroleum ether extract showed better antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial isolates. Key words: Antibacterial, Bacteriostatic, Clinical Isolates, Phytochemical screening. Download PDF

Author: M. Manimaran
Keyword: Organics, Phosphorus, Incubation, Release pattern
Page No: 158-160
Abstract: An incubation experiment was conducted with the same set of three soils with five different organics (green manure, farmyard manure, vermicompost, pressmud and poultry manure) to find out the release pattern of P. the soil samples were analysed for available P once in 15 days up to 75 days. The experimental soil was sandy clay loam in texture which comprised of 74.01% sand, 4.35% silt and clay 21.30%. It was neutral in reaction (pH 7.3), non saline in nature with electrical conductivity of 0.21 dSm-1 and cation exchange capacity of 15.7 cmol (p+) kg-1. The soil samples were analysed for available P once in 15 days up to 75 days.The results of the experiment revealed that with progress of incubation time (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days) an increase in the concentration of available P was observed in all the treatments applied. However, addition of green manure (T2) exhibited a significant increase in the concentration of available P at all days of sampling with the mean values ranged from 0.43 to 0.56 ppm. The treatment T2 was followed by T3 (Farmyard manure), T4 (Vermicompost), T5 (Pressmud), T6 (Poultry manure) and T1 (Control) regarding the release of phosphorus. The lowest value was found with control where no manure was applied. Key words: Organics, Phosphorus, Incubation, Release pattern Download PDF

Author: Dr. Felix Nayak
Keyword: Afro-American, Walker theories,Meridian
Page No: 161-162
Abstract: The last two decades have seen the flowering of the talent of the Afro-African women writers as has no other period in history. In fact, there always has been a tradition of women writers among the b lacks going back to 1787, when the first slave narrative by a woman was published in the United States. Phillies Wheatley, Lucy Terry and Harriet E Wilson are names who have continued this tradition but despite their existence, acknowledged women writers have been few and far between. The body of work by these women writers gives ample evidence of the fact that these women writers have shown concerns regarding their rightful place in the existing order of thing Alice Walker (1944) belongs to the Afro-American women writers’ fraternity. In her fictional work we can see Walker’s commitment to healing the individual and the community. Walker theories the concept of womanism. Her first two novels ‘The Third Life of George Copland’ and ‘Meridian’ articulate Walker’s womanist’s concerns. In ‘The Third life of George Copland’ and ‘Meridian’, she deals with the theme of female genital mutilation as practised in Africa. In Meridian, Walker projects the character of the protagonist Meridian Hill as a revolutionary and a civil rights activist who rejects motherhood to fulfill a greater social need i.e. to serve the community and the children who have lost their parents in the civil rights agitation across America. However, Walker became a celebrity with her third novel “The Color Purple (1982)”. ‘The Color Purple’ is the story of Celia narrated through letters to God and some to her sister. Walker’s genius as a writer becomes evident in the manner in which she uses a simple narrative technique to document a large number of themes – from the condition of black women in America to their position in their families, their relationships to the men to name a few of them. However, Walker is chiefly admired by her critics for the way in which she develops the character of Celia – from an abused to a woman who is confident of her sexual identity and resists domination to become a successful entrepreneur and breadwinner of her family. Also, Walker recreates the rhythms of southern small town existence accurately and the characters bring out the flavor of the black community as each of them struggle to find ways of self-expression and create their own spaces of survival. Attempting to define the characteristics of Blacks, Toni Morrison observes, “There are things that I tried to incorporate in my fiction that are directly and deliberately related to what is regarded as the major characteristics of Blacks. One of which is the ability to be both print and oral literature to combine those two aspects so that the stories can be real in silence of course, but one should be able to hear them as well”. Before initiating the study of the female articulation discussed in the novels of Alice Walker, one should know the precise meaning of the term “articulation” itself. In a general sense female articulation means giving expression to one’s feelings and thoughts without fear and reservations. It means being confident, enterprising, ambitious and individualistic. Woman, who demands attentions, equality and harmony, not on compromising terms but on terms at par with man-even asserting herself for her rights, should the exigencies of the situation so demand. Alice Walker does not literally claim to be a feminist writer but traces of feminism can be easily seen in her fiction. Women characters created by her have no doubt different backgrounds and cultures and different set of problems confronting them but one basic thing that one notices in her work is the writer’s plea for equal treatment for women in society. Women protagonists in the works of Alice Walker struggle for their rightful place in society, doing away with all kinds of patriarchal oppression resulting in sexual assault and treating women as second rate citizens. Alice WalkeDownload PDF

Author: Dr. Felix Nayak
Keyword: Conscience, inner crisis, Arun Joshi
Page No: 163-164
Abstract: Arun Joshi has been an outstanding English novelist, who has impressed the reader immensely with his thoughtful utterances, masterly treatment of existential themes and skilful weaving of fictional te chniques. Joshi has published only five novels but that is enough to immortalize him in the annuls of Indian English fiction. All his novels deal with the existential problems of mankind and in their frantic search for a solution to them, they usually tend to be serious and thought-provoking. His protagonists pass through disturbing mental processes and tense behavior in a given situation. Joshi is an existentialist who does not claim to have read much about Camus, Kafka and Sartre. The central experience of Joshi’s novels is crisis-sometimes a crisis of emotions as in The Foreigner and The Strange Case of Billy Biswas, sometimes a crisis of ethics and allegiance as in the Apprentice and The City and The River and sometimes a crisis of consciousness as in The Last Labyrinth. Joshi’s main theme in his novels is quest, one can see how he works out the hopeless longings that prompt all the heroes. Trilling rightly observes that “The novel is a perpetual quest for reality and the most effective agent of the moral imagination of the times”. 1 Through his novels Joshi portrays the conflict of the contemporary Indian. His novels highlight the individuals’s inner crisis and consciousness. His protagonists throughout their lives try to seek meaning of life in the meaningless world. Sindi Oberai in The foreigner is a quester after absurd wants with a vacuum in his soul. Billy Biswas in The Strange case of Billy Biswas is concerned with his search for the potential divinity that is there in latent form in his unconscious. It is this “Outer Thing” for which he continues his search. Billy’s becoming a primitive is a step towards his spiritual awareness, his existential quest for meaning and values in life. It is this conscience in crisis that drives him to the abode of death. In The Apprentice, Ratan Rathor out of an acute sense of crisis in conscience and a quest to understand the meaning of life, undergoes the sternest apprenticeship in the world. Symbolically, he starts at the lowest – wiping the shoes of the congregation and thus begging forgiveness of all those whom he has harmed. He believes that polishing the shoes of the devotees will cleanse the filth enveloping his soul, will purge him of his vanity and will bring an absolute humility and gentle acceptance of life. He pleads that there is nothing wrong to make a second start. His conscience gets purged to recover the ‘self’ through an act of penitence that makes him an affirmative kind of existential figure and the personal value he discovers for himself lends meaning to his conscience. Joshi’s Sahitya Academy Award winner novel, The Last Labyrinth depicts a fascinating exploration of the turbulent inner world of a millionaire industrialist Som Bhasker whose mystical urge is presented in his perpetual longing for the vitals of life and existence and who is relentlessly driven by undefined hunger which he unsuccessfully seeks to satisfy by possession of an object, a business enterprise and a woman named Anuradha who becomes more and more the centre of his entire existence. He is in quest of knowledge and is always guided by reason, not by faith. He is curious to know the secret of life and tries to probe into “that cove of lonliness around which all of us are built” (54). He is convinced that all the problems can be solved if one has knowledge. But surprisingly enough his dilemma is not solved by his thirst for knowledge, it is rather aggravated by his intensely material approach. It is Aftab who very plainly gives him the right directive and reminds him that he is different. He doesn’t understand them. He works by logic, by his brain. Here Joshi seems to suggest that the unwavering faith is the right substitute for rationalism. Anuradha injects trDownload PDF

Author: Biji Cyriac, K. Eswaran
Keyword: Antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity, solvent extracts, ascorbic acid
Page No: 165-171
Abstract: Antioxidant activity is one of the most studies, due to the interest of compounds both as preservatives and protectors against oxidation in food, cosmetics, and health implications because of its pot ential and functional group present in it. To find out the impact of solvents on antioxidant activities different solvents like ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate were used for the extraction of compounds from red algae, Kappaphycus alvarezii. To find out the anti-oxidant activities, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, hydroxyl assay, superoxide dismutase assay and reducing power assay were used to determine antioxidant properties of this seaweed. The anti-oxidant assay was performed at the concentration ranging from 50-800µg/ml. Among the different extracts methanol expressed the best result and benzene solvent showed the poor performance. The present studies confirm that Kappaphycus alvarezii received special attention and used as a source of natural antioxidant. Key words: Antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity, solvent extracts, ascorbic acidDownload PDF

Author: R.S. Jothi*, F. Uthayakumari, J.T. Malar and V. Bharathy
Keyword: Anti-inflammatory, paw edema, S.italica ssp micrantha,
Page No: 172-175
Abstract: The present study is intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of aerial parts of Senna italica ssp micrantha. The anti-inflammatory activity study is carried out by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The methanol extract of aerial parts of the Senna italica ssp micrantha is injected at different doses such as 250 and 500 mg/Kg body weight and the effect is compared with standard drug Indomethacin (10mg/Kg). This study established the anti-inflammatory potential of the plant S.italica ssp micrantha. Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, paw edema, S.italica ssp micrantha, Download PDF