ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Medical and Health Sciences)


Title: PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON TEEN MOTHERS IN UMUAGU-INYI, OJI-RIVER L.G.A OF ENUGU STATE
Author: Robert. T. Kever, Emmanuel O. Chukwu, Dathini Hamina, Habu Haruna, Markus. N. Uba, Lola Nelson. Kabiru. K. Dawa
Keyword: Predisposing factors, psychosocial impact, teenage pregnancy, teen mothers.
Page No: 132-140
Abstract: Background: Teenage pregnancy is now a global tragedy however, the tragic proportions of this problem is best seen when the impact of pregnancy upon a frightened teenage girl is considered. It is est imated that each year, over 15 million women between the ages of 15 and 20 give birth worldwide. This figure does not include girls younger than fifteen years, nor does it accounts for abortions or miscarriages. In Africa alone, about twenty-five percent of all women give birth before their 18th birthday. Objectives: To determine the predisposing factors and psychosocial effects of teenage pregnancy among teen mothers in Umuagu-Inyi ward, Oji-River Local Government Area of Enugu state. Methods: A descriptive cross- sectional design was used. The target population comprises teenage mothers in Umuagu-Inyi. The sample size consists of 100 teenage mothers from Umuagu-Inyi, who were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Data was collected through the use of self structured and validated questionnaire which was administered to the teenage mothers. Frequency distribution table was used for data analysis while inferential statistics of Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis at 5% level of significance. Results: Findings revealed that the major predisposing factors to teenage pregnancy are ignorance, poor socio-economic status of parents/guardian and lack of proper sex education at home and in schools. Findings also revealed that school dropout is the major psychosocial impacts of teenage pregnancy on teen mothers. Test of hypothesis however showed a significant association between sex education and school dropout among teen mothers. Conclusion: The study suggests a rising need for parents to put serious effort towards adequate education of their children on healthy relationships as it concerns the opposite sex, encouraging them to ask questions where necessary Key words: Predisposing factors, psychosocial impact, teenage pregnancy, teen mothers. Download PDF


Title: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM AND SALMONELLA TYPHICO- INFECTION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ABAKALIKI, EBONYI STATE NIGERIA.
Author: Okonkwo, E. C., Nwele, D. E., Nworie, O., Agumah, N. B., Orji, J. O.and Nwuzo, A. C.
Keyword: Co-infection, Malaria and Typhoid, Pregnant Women, Ebony State, Nigeria
Page No: 141-144
Abstract: Malaria and typhoid fever are both endemic in the tropics and pregnant women constitute one of the high risk groups. This study was carried out to determine the rate of malaria-typhoid co-infection i n pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria. About 120 volunteer pregnant women were recruited during routine antenatal. Malaria infection was determined by qualitative immunodiagnostic assay and confirmed by microscopic examination of thick and thin giemsa stained slides. Typhoid infection was determined by Widal agglutination method and confirmed by stool culture. Out of 120 pregnant women studied, 49 (40.8%) were positive for malaria parasite and equally had significant titer of salmonella antibiotics. Of the 120 stool samples cultured 29 (24.2%) were positive for salmonella. Thus, the overall rate of malaria-typhoid co-infection was 12.5% by both Widal agglutination and stool culture methods. The co-infection of malaria and typhoid in pregnancy has a profound effect on adverse pregnancy outcome. We advocate for routine screening and treatment of infected pregnant women. Keywords: Co-infection, Malaria and Typhoid, Pregnant Women, Ebony State, Nigeria Download PDF


Title: PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN THE RURAL COMMUNITY OF FARTA WOREDA, NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA
Author: Binyam Akalu and Asmare Amuamuta
Keyword: T.saginata, prevalence, risk factors, Farta Woreda.
Page No: 145-155
Abstract: Introduction: Taenia saginata (T. saginata) is an adult cestode intestinal parasite by which human beings are infected when they consume raw beef. Infection with this parasite is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia is one of the heavily affected countries. Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. saginata infection in the rural community of Farta woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken for this study. Multistage and systematic random sampling was used to get the total sample size of 846 participants. A pre-tested and structured interview was used to collect data. The data was entered and SPSS statistical software to analyze the date by using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The study showed that prevalence of T. saginata infection was 26.6%. The habit of consuming raw beef (Adjusted Odds Ratio/AOR= 6.2, 95% CI 4.07, 8.3), duration of time before consuming salted dried raw beef (AOR=6.8, 95% CI 1.98, 9.5), gender (AOR=0.54, 95%CI 0.68, 0.77) and knowledge about T. saginata infection (AOR= 0.013, 95% CI 0.01, 0.32) were significantly associated with the prevalence of T. saginata. However, other factors including practice of eating salted beef, age and educational background did not show significant association with the prevalence. Conclusion: The prevalence of T. saginata infection found in this study was high (26.6%) in the rural community of Farta woreda. Furthermore, important public health factors of the disease (including raw beef eating practices and knowledge about T. saginata infection) have been also been revealed which could be useful for the government and other responsible bodies working in disease prevention and control activities. Key words: T.saginata, prevalence, risk factors, Farta Woreda. Download PDF


Title: SONOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENT OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS AMONG HEALTHY ADULTS IN JOS, NIGERIA
Author: Dr. Kolade- Yunusa, Hadijat Oluseyi, Dr. Haruna, Abubakar Shehu
Keyword: Ultrasound, CIMT, normal subjects.
Page No: 156-162
Abstract: The intima media thickness (IMT) has been established as an early predictor of general arteriosclerosis in patients. B-mode ultrasonography is a noninvasive method for examining thewalls of periphera l arteries. It provides a measure of intima-mediathickness (IMT) and the presence of stenosis and plaques. However, to date, there is paucity of information on IMT of common carotid artery in healthy patients in study area. Objective: The aim of this study is to sonographically measure common carotid artery intima media thickness among healthy adults in Jos, Nigeria. Methodology: The common carotid artery (CCA) was scanned using an ALOKA SSD-3500 ultrasound scanner with Doppler facility and a 7.5MHz linear transducer. Three measurements of the CIMT were obtained at 1cm proximal to the right and left carotid bulb and the mean value of the three measurements was recorded. Results: The overall mean CIMT 0.61mm±0.10. CIMT values increased progressively with increasing age from 21-70 years and with increasing BMI. CIMT correlated positively with age and BMI. Mean CIMT value was higher in male (0.62±0.09mm) compared to female (0.61±0.09mm). The overall right and left mean CIMT value was 0.61± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.10 respectively. There was no significant difference between the two sides. Conclusion: The CIMT value obtained in this study is slightly higher than those among Caucasians confirming the need for establishing normal values for each region. The study has shown that age, sex, BMI have significant effect on CIMT and should be taken into consideration when reporting CIMT of normal subjects. Keywords: Ultrasound, CIMT, normal subjects. Download PDF


Title: PREVALENCE OF UNDERNUTRITION AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN IN GONDAR CITY, NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA 2014.
Author: Tilayie Feto Gelano, Nigusie Birhan, Mengistu Mekonnen*
Keyword: Under-nutrition, Malnutrition, Underweight, wasting, stunting, Gondar city, Ethiopia.
Page No: 163-174
Abstract: Introduction: - Malnutrition specifically under-nutrition is still devastating public problem in developing countries particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Objective: -To assess th e prevalence and associated factors of under-nutrition among under-five children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Method:- Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2014. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data was collected using pre-tested interview based questionnaire and standardized anthropometric equipment. Data was entered into Epi-info version 3.5.1 and transported to SPSS version 20 software package for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with Under-nutrition among under-five children. Result:-This study showed that, 47%, 17.7% and 7.7 % of under-five children had stunting, underweight and wasting problem respectively. The main contributing factors of under-nutrition were found to be; monthly income of families (AOR=4.46; 95%CI: 1.43-13.87), birth order of under five children (AOR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.06- 7.70), sex of children (AOR=2.02; 95% CI: 1.06- 7.70) and maternal educational status (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.15- 3.35). Conclusion: - Prevalence of under-nutrition was found to be high and maternal educational status, monthly incomes of the family and birth order of under-five children were found to be important factors of under-nutrition among under-five children. Key words: Under-nutrition, Malnutrition, Underweight, wasting, stunting, Gondar city, Ethiopia. Download PDF


Title: PREVALENCE OF THROMBOCYTOPENIA, AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CARE AT HAWASSA UNIVERSITY TEACHING AND REFERRAL HOSPITAL
Author: Fanuel Belayneh*, Addis G/Mariam, Fithamlak Solomon, Zeleke Geto, Antene Amsalu, Demiss Nigussie and Derese Daka
Keyword: Thrombocytopenia, pregnancy, ANC
Page No: 175-182
Abstract: Background: Thrombocytopenia, or low platelet count of less than 150 × 109/l, during pregnancy is the major risk factor associated with significant bleeding at the time of delivery. However, screenin g and follow up of pregnant woman during, their antenatal care visit is not yet practiced in resource limited countries. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia, and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Hawassa University Teaching and Referral Hospital. Method: Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from July 19 to sep 23, 2015 at Hawassa University Teaching and Referral Hospital. A total of 198 pregnant women included in the study using consecutive sampling technique. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were done to assess the predictors of thrombocytopenia. Variables which were significant in the bivariate analysis at p-value < 0.2 were entered to the multivariate analysis. P- Value of < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Result: A total of 193 women on ANC follow-up at the Hospiatal were participated in the study with a response rate of 97.47%. Thrombocytopenia was found among 26 women with a prevalence of 13.5%. The mean (±SD) platelet count was 249.9× 109/L (±88.7). Hemoglobin level and educational status were identified to have association with thrombocytopenia with [AOR=9.8: 95% CI, 1.1-82.4] and [AOR=9.9: 95% CI, 1.2-82.8] respectively. Conclusion and Recommendation: The prevalence of thrombocytopenia is 13.50%, dominantly with mild type. Thrombocytopenia is higher in pregnant women with anemia. Therefore, the pregnant women screening should include platelet count especially when the woman is anemic to avoid adverse outcomes. Key words: Thrombocytopenia, pregnancy, ANC Download PDF


Title: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIA PROGRAMMES ON HIV AND AIDS IN SWAZILAND
Author: Siphepho Jameson S.; LukheleLungile; Dlamini SabeloV.; F. Shabalala-Zwane and Hlophe Londiwe D.
Keyword: Awareness, Broadcast media, Coverage, HIV AND AIDS, Swaziland
Page No: 183-192
Abstract: Awareness creation through media campaigns has been part of key HIV interventions in the last twenty six years in Swaziland. This article is based on the findings of a mixed methods study that evalua ted the coverage, preference and effectiveness of broadcast media campaigns on HIV and AIDS. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitativedata from 400 conveniently sampled respondents from sixteen chiefdoms in eight Tinkhundla (constituencies) from all four regions of the country, while qualitative data were collected through focus groups discussions using a topic guide. A majority were in the rural areas (94%), were females (76%) and were unemployed (73%). Most (66%) had radio only in their homes, while 27% had both television and radio. Among the 27%, most (96%) preferred watching television than listening to radio. Respondents (96%) were aware of the HIV and AIDS programmes and 98% liked the programmes. However, only half of the respondents reported being comfortable with current airing times of the programmes. The study revealed high coverage, listenership, awareness and appreciation of the HIV and AIDS. Improvement in awareness and knowledge has reportedly resulted in adoption of safer social and sexual behaviour as a result of the media campaigns among respondents. To increase reach and coverage, airing time need to be changed to primetime. Key words: Awareness, Broadcast media, Coverage, HIV AND AIDS, Swaziland Download PDF


Title: SINGLE DOSE OF INTRA-MUSCULAR PLATELET RICH PLASMA SUPPRESS THE INCREASE IN PLASMA HEPCIDIN LEVEL: PROTECT ROLE IN EXERCISE INDUCED IRON LOSS?
Author: Zekine Punduk
Keyword: PRP administration improved inflammation by suppressing the increase hepcidin level in the post-exercise and it may favourable effect in the exercise induced iron losses. Key Words: Hepcidin; exercise-induced muscle damage; platelet rich plasma
Page No: 193-201
Abstract: Background: In general, platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection treatment is used for skeletal muscle injury. PRP is regulated tissue regeneration by controlling autocrine and paracrine biomolecules inc luding growth factors. We recently have reported that PRP administration reverses in plasma iron levels response to post-exercise recovery days. As a continuation of this study that PRP can be affected on iron regulated hormone plasma hepcidin levels during the post-exercise inflammation process. The exercise-induced muscle damage exercise (EIMDE) used as an acute model for muscle inflammation. The purpose of this investigation the effects of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and hepcidin responses and recovery strategy muscle inflammation induced by exhaustive muscle damage exercise. Methods: Volunteers were assigned to a control (n =6) and PRP application (PRP, n=6) and they performed exhaustive exercise with maximal voluntary contraction of the elbow. Then, saline or PRP injections was applied on painfully arm of the subjects. Blood samples were obtained in the morning to establish a baseline value and also following the injections 1., 2.,3. and 4 days post-exercise. Results: The baseline levels in white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hepcidin levels were similar in both saline and PRP injections group. However, 24-hour following exercise a significant increase in Hb, WBC, Neut, hepcidin were observed in control during the recovery days. Interestingly, PRP administration inhibited effects on these parameters. Conclusion: PRP administration improved inflammation by suppressing the increase hepcidin level in the post-exercise and it may favourable effect in the exercise induced iron losses. Key Words: Hepcidin; exercise-induced muscle damage; platelet rich plasma Download PDF


Title: DOMESTIC DEATH-STAB WOUND WITH SCISSORS
Author: Nnoli Martin.A, Chukwuegbo Cornelius, Jegede Olushola, Nwabuko Collins
Keyword: Stab wound, Scissors, Inoffensive site-peripheral artery/veins and effects.
Page No: 202-205
Abstract: The study involves two male Negroid adults with tailoring as the occupation working in small scale industrial area of south Eastern, Nigeria who had a minor domestic misunderstanding. In a bid of set tling the rift the two were asked for sometime off to talk to each others privately.However, the two agreed to talk over the issue within themselves; in one of this private meeting the said accused took a pair of scissors in their office while they were talking suddenly stabbed the victim on the lateral aspect of the left neck resulting to torrential bleeding. The victim raised an alarm as he was rushed to a nearby clinic where he was attended by the medical team and discharged. A few minutes later he died. This report tends to portend that all stab wound notwithstanding the anatomical site must be hospitalised and monitored closely by both emergency physicians and traumatic/neurosurgeons for a while before discharge. Keywords: Stab wound, Scissors, Inoffensive site-peripheral artery/veins and effects. Download PDF


Title: TRAUMA INDUCED ORAL MALIGNANT ULCER: A CASE REPORT
Author: Divya Pandya, Anil Kumar Nagarajappa, Sreedevi
Keyword: Non-Healing Ulcer, Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Sharp Tooth, Trauma
Page No: 206-209
Abstract: Oral cancer is one of the sixth most frequently occurring cancers. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for 90% of all oral cancers. SCC is a malignant neoplasm of mucosal origin. The most co mmon site is lateral border and ventral surface of tongue. The etiology of OSCC is multifactorial. The use of tobacco and betel quid, heavy alcoholic drinking, diet low in fresh fruits and vegetables, viruses, trauma from dental structures and genetics are considered as possible risk factors. Early diagnosis plays an important role in improving prognosis and reducing morbidity and mortality associated with OSCC. It is managed by surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy singularly or in combination, but regardless of treatment modality, the 5-year survival rate is poor at about 50%. This can be attributed to the fact that about two-thirds of OSCC already have a large lesion at the time of diagnosis. This present case high lights a case of OSCC induced by a sharp tooth with no deleterious habits history and confirmed by histopathology. Key words: Non-Healing Ulcer, Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Sharp Tooth, Trauma Download PDF


Title: SUPPOSEDLY NATURALDEATH BUT HOMICIDAL
Author: Nnoli Martin Anazodo,JegedeOlushola, Nwabuko Collins
Keyword: Homicidal death, injuries to soft and skeletal injuries (Occipital).
Page No: 210-213
Abstract: An elderly 87 years old octogenarian, a Negroid male who was said to have been apparently in good health, a polygamist (married to two wives) with children. He was said to have died naturally after a night sleep without waking up the next day. The law enforcement agency was invited on the fateful day as the younger wife and children were suspicious of the first wife children. An inquest was sent to us as the investigation officers were doing their interrogation with each member of the family. It was on this course that they found out that the children of the first wife have perpetuated the act of murdering their father by hitting him at the back of the head and neck at mid night while asleep. The reason given was lack of attention to them in preference to the younger wife children needs. Keywords: Homicidal death, injuries to soft and skeletal injuries (Occipital). Download PDF