ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Applied Science)


Title: TESL TRAINEES’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS ROLE OF TEACHER
Author: Samira Nikian* and Faizah Mohamad Nor
Keyword: TESL trainee, attitude, role of teacher.
Page No: 176-181
Abstract: Abstract This study is designed to investigate the role of teachers in the classroom from TESL trainees’ views. Mixed-method research is used as the mode of inquiry for this research study. The main m odes of data collection are questionnaire and interview that elicits information on TESL trainees’ attitudes towards the role of teacher. Participants for this study were fifteen local TESL trainees in 3rd grade of studying in Malaysia. The findings indicate that the majority of the TESL trainees had positive attitudes towards considering teacher as facilitator instead of knowledge provider. Key word: TESL trainee, attitude, role of teacher Download PDF


Title: INDIGENOUS GOAT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS OF WESTER AMHARA, ETHIOPIA
Author: Damitie Kebede, Alemash Melese, Kefyalew Alemayehu, Shigdaf Mekuriaw, Sileshi Andualem
Keyword: Goat production, crop-livestock, Western Amhara, indigenous breed
Page No: 182-192
Abstract: Improvement in productivity of goats could be achieved through identification the current production system with constraints, refining existing practices in the system and introduction of new technol ogies. This study was initiated to describe the goat production systems and to identify major constraints of goat productivity in the study area. Focus group discussion, field observation and interview were used to collect the data for this study. Goats were the most predominant species of livestock owned, followed by sheep, cattle, chicken, donkey, mule and horse respectively. Mean holding of the cattle, sheep and goat kept in the study area was 5.62±0.95, 7.27±2.93 and 16.53±3.50. Goats were ranked as the first in Ebnat (index of 0.40) and Gonji kolela Districts (index of 0.37) important livestock species followed by cattle with an index of 0.27 and 0.32 in two Districts, respectively. However, in Farta District cattle was ranked as first (index of 0.37) followed by goats (index of 0.33) and sheep (index of 0.14). From this study it was possible to conclude that the general production system and goat management system in the study areas was similar to other western highland areas in Amhara region and was characterized by mixed crop-livestock production system. Keywords: Goat production, crop-livestock, Western Amhara, indigenous breed Download PDF


Title: FARMERS PERCEPTION ON THE UTILIZATION OF MILK PRODUCTS AND STRESS TOLERANCE CAPABILITIES OF GOATS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN AMHARA, ETHIOPIA
Author: Kefyalew Alemayehu, Damitie Kebede, Alemash Melese, Sileshi Andualem
Keyword: Adaptation, dairy goat, Farmer perception, stress tolerance
Page No: 193-200
Abstract: The composition of goats’ milk has got better digestibility, alkalinity, buffering capacity and certain therapeutic values in medicine and human nutrition as compared to cow or human milk. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to quantify the current perception of smallholder farmers on the utilization of dairy goat milk and its products, and capacity of stress tolerance capabilities. The study was conducted in three districts of Western Amhara. The data was collected through questionnaires, field observation, focus group discussion and individual interviews with the selected farmers. The results of this study revealed that major causes for under utilization of goat dairy products include cultural taboos (33.8%), bad smell of goat milk (13.3%), lower milk production potential of goats (24%), and lack of awareness (28.9%). However, most farmers explained that they prefer cow milk over goat milk for its nutritional and medicinal values.Majority (85.9%) of farmers reported to use goat milk and its products as a part of diet for the future. The farmers also noted that goats have the stress tolerance and climate change adaptability. From the overall reach clearly seen that specialized dairy goat production must be intensified so as to increase milk and its products and adapting the existing climate change and related factors Key words: Adaptation, dairy goat, Farmer perception, stress tolerance Download PDF


Title: REVIEW ON BEEKEEPING ACTIVITIES, OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES AND MARKETING IN ETHIOPIA
Author: Seid Guyo and Solomon Legesse
Keyword: Beekeeping, challenges, Opportunity, beehive
Page No: 201-214
Abstract: Beekeeping is a long-standing practice in the rural communities of Ethiopia and appears as ancient history of the country. Different assessment and diagnostic study (Livelihood systems assessment, in tegrated honeybee management needs assessment and diagnostic survey) was undertaken in different parts of the Ethiopia to identify the opportunities and challenges of beekeeping systems in the country and in so doing to suggest possible intervention measures for the identified problems. Based on the review indication in most part of the country except nearby research center areas only two types of honeybee production systems were identified, namely traditional and transitional honeybee production systems. Based on these criteria, a honeybee production system in the country is predominantly traditional and transitional (90.3%) and very few (9.7%) were practiced with modern beekeeping systems. According to different citation most of beekeepers explain that they started beekeeping, most of them (92%) have started beekeeping by trapping swarms and some (7%) received from their parents as gifts. Honeybee flora compositions of the country are dominated by natural vegetation, undergrowth, and some perennial crops; cultivated crops, annual herbs, and some natural trees have significant contribution for beekeeping. The major challenges were drought, pests and predators, pesticide poisoning, low hive occupation rate, absconding, lack of modern beekeeping equipment and materials, honeybee diseases, lack of honey storage facilities, poor extension service, non-existence or low involvement of women in beekeeping development and lack of knowledge of appropriate methods of beekeeping. On the other hand the opportunities for beekeeping in the country were the existence and abundance of honeybee, availability of potential flowering plants, ample sources of water for bees except in drought prone area, traditional knowledge of beekeepers' experience and practices and socio-economic value of honey. As concluding remarks, the traditional and homemade hives were financially feasible and appropriate for relatively good use of locally available resources. Thus, the major concern to sustain the beekeeping activities should be integration of beekeeping with natural resources conservation programs, introducing affordable and appropriate beekeeping technology through training, and encouraging of community as whole. Keywords: Beekeeping, challenges, Opportunity, beehive Download PDF


Title: PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND INVITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOT EXTRACT, ISOPRINOSINE AND SHATAVARI SYRUP
Author: Satheesh Kumar Bhandary B*, Sharmila KP, Suchetha Kumari N, Vadish S Bhat
Keyword: Phytochemical, antioxidant, Asparagus racemosus, Isoprinosine, Shatavari.
Page No: 215-223
Abstract: A number of medicinal plants have been used in traditional system of medicine all over the world since the beginning of human civilisation, aiming to maintain health and to cure diseases. Oxidative s tress has emerged as a key role player in the pathophysiology of several diseases in humans as well as in experimental animal models. Plants can represent a source of novel compounds with promising antioxidant activity since they produce a lot of antioxidants. In recent days there has been an increasing interest worldwide to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically active with less or no side effects. In the present study the phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of Asparagus racemosus Root Extract, Isoprinosine and Shatavari Syrup was assessed. To assess the antioxidant potential, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging assay, 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay and Total Antioxidant Capacity were carried out. The findings of the present study indicate that ethanolic Shatavari syrup and Asparagus racemosus root extract are excellent free-radical scavengers and potent natural antioxidant. Key words: Phytochemical, antioxidant, Asparagus racemosus, Isoprinosine, Shatavari. Download PDF


Title: USING THE PERTURBATION DUE TO OBLATENESS OF THE THIRD ORDER TO DECREASE THE EFFECT OF THE PERTURBATION DUE TO AIR DRAG ON LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITES
Author: M.R. Amin
Keyword: Oblateness, Air drag, Low Earth orbit satellites.
Page No: 224-230
Abstract: In this paper the combined effects of the perturbation due to secular oblateness up to third order and drag force on the semi-major axis and the eccentricity of LEO – satellites are considered. The p urpose of the work is to decrease the resultant perturbation on these parameters. Numerical results are obtained for some critical orbits where these perturbations work against each other. Key words: Oblateness, Air drag, Low Earth orbit satellites. Download PDF


Title: EFFECT OF INTRA-ROW SPACING ON GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF ADAMA RED ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.) CULTIVAR UNDER IRRIGATION IN FICHE, NORTH SHOA ETHIOPIA
Author: Sara Belay, Daniel Mideksa, Solomon Gebrezgiabher, Weldemariam Seifu,*
Keyword: Adama red, cultivar, growth, Intra-row, Irrigation, onion, spacing, yield,
Page No: 231-240
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Addis Ababa University, Selale Campus Horticulture department demonstration farm to assess the Effect of plant density (intra-row spacing) on growth (days to matur ity, plant height, leaf length and leaf number) and yield components (mean bulb weight, bulb dry weight, fresh biomass yield and dry biomass yield) of Adama red onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivar in 2014/15 under irrigation. The experiment was conducted using randomized complete block design with three replicates. The analyzed result using ANOVA shows significance difference among the treatments. Closer plant spacing enhanced maturity, while wider plant spacing showed slightly delayed maturity. Best plant height (45.90cm), highest leaf length (28.57cm), maximum mean bulb weight (53.34g), maximum dry bulb weight (28.13g), fresh biomass yield (56.56g) and highest dry biomass yield (42.00g) was recorded in plants spaced at 10cm intra-row spacing. Therefore, it could be conclude that, under Fich condition, good quantity of Adama red onion is possible to produce with intra-row spacing of 10cm which was dominant over the other treatments. Keywords: Adama red, cultivar, growth, Intra-row, Irrigation, onion, spacing, yield, Download PDF


Title: REVIEW ON BIOMASS YIELD DYNAMICS AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA)
Author: Mekuanint Gashaw
Keyword: Alfalfa, Leaf and stem yield, chemical composition
Page No: 241-251
Abstract: Ethiopia endowed large number of livestock population despite less profit from the sector because of poor nutrition among others factors. In Ethiopia the common feed sources for livestock particular ly beef and dairy cattle is natural pasture and crop residue, which is poor in quality unless supplemented by cultivated legumes like alfalfa. Most of legume forages are a protein source in livestock nutrition and of which, those homegrown feeds make farmers less dependent from the purchase of other protein source. Alfalfa is one of the most important forage crops worldwide due to its high forage quality, yield, and adaptability to different climatic conditions. There are numerous cultivars of alfalfa, selected for specific abilities, such as winter hardiness, drought resistance, tolerance to heavy grazing or tolerance to pests and diseases. Growth stage, cut number, leaf to stem ratio, moisture conditions at harvest and processing method are the most important causes of variation for yield of alfalfa. Decreasing protein content is a dilution effect related with the decreasing leaf to stem ratio; the leaves have stable protein content and their protein level is much higher than the protein content in stems. Cultivars and their genetic characteristics crucially determine the volume and stability of yield, as well as the quality of alfalfa forage. With increasing maturity, plant structural carbohydrates, as measured by the ADF and NDF fractions, increase. These fiber fractions represent the more indigestible parts of the plant. As a result, digestibility and energy obtained through fermentation decrease with maturity. Relative feed value (RFV) has been used for years to compare the quality of legume and legume/grass hays and silages. Abbreviation: ADF= Acid detergent fiber, NDF= Neutral detergent fiber, RFV= Relative feed value Key words: Alfalfa, Leaf and stem yield, chemical composition Download PDF


Title: STRENGTHENING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY IN ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF SWAZILAND
Author: Alfred Francis Murye
Keyword: Environmental policy, conflict management, policy formulation, policy implementation, Swaziland
Page No: 252-264
Abstract: Implementation of environmental management policies enunciated by the Government of Swaziland under the auspices of Agenda 21and the MDGs, is still a major challenge for both custodians and would be beneficiaries in the country. Incidents of conflict regarding environmental management, especially rationalization of exploitation of natural resources have thus featured prominently. An exploratory study was carried out by the author, to assess and document the role of environmental policy in conflict management. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in collecting data and their analysis. A questionnaire and interview techniques were used for collecting data; content analysis on environmental policy documents as well as documents on incidences of environmental management conflict was done, using the Policy, Structures, Performance (PSP) Framework; and a survey of opinions of custodians of environmental policy and all stakeholders regarding the performance of policy was done using the Nominal Group Technique (NGT). The study established that, most of the policies are in conflict with each other, while some are outdated. Government officials, policy planners and implementers view integration of environmental issues into policy as being strong, while beneficiaries rate it as being weak. Enforcement and monitoring of policy feature as major constraints. This is due to lack of professional capacity. The author strongly recommend that both policy makers and implementers should conduct awareness campaigns through advocacy; policies should be harmonized and housed under one roof; authentic public participation in policy formulation and implementation is of paramount importance; capacity building of policy implementers is crucial in terms of human and financial resources, as well as technological and structural stature; outdated policies need thorough interrogation, review and subsequent alignment to the current environment, as should concerted efforts in multi-sector and multidisciplinary research for sustainable solutions that should inform policy. Key Words: Environmental policy, conflict management, policy formulation, policy implementation, Swaziland Download PDF


Title: MYTHS AND BELIEFS IN THE USE OF HOT SPRINGSIN SWAZILAND – WHAT ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH RISKS?
Author: Alfred Francis Murye* and Sipho Ishmael M. Mkhonta
Keyword: Thermal springs, environment, diarrhea, waste management, Ezulwini,
Page No: 265-282
Abstract: An exploratory descriptive study that followed both quantitative and qualitative research approaches to data collection and analysis was carriedat the Ezulwini hot springs in Swaziland to determine t he myths, believes, and human health and environmental risks posed by the use of hot springs in Swaziland. The study was prompted by the fact that, the hot springs at Ezulwini and elsewhere in Swaziland are subjected to numerous uses such as drinking, washing, bathing and enema which pose health and environmental risks to both the immediate users of the resource, those using the water downstream, and the environment at large. It purposively targeted all the hot springs at Ezulwini. The participants included people in the area and visitors using the hot springs. Persons using the springs and those employed to manage them were observed and interviewed. Convenience sampling was used hence people found at the hot springs sites on the time of data collection were interviewed using an interview schedule and informal interviews. Participatory observation methods were alsoused to observe and record data from the participants. Data saturation determined a sample size of 50 participants. The prevailing conditions at the spring’s sites were observed and a checklist was used for further data collection. A diary was utilized to record anecdotes and a camera was used to take pictures. Water samples were taken and tested at the Natural Resource Laboratory in Mbabane for nitrates, sulfates, chlorides, total dissolved solids, and total coli forms. Temperature and pH were measured on site. The study found that, all the hot spring users at Ezulwini are exposed to either physical hazard due to thermal pool structure or due to activities performed at the thermal springs such as enema, bathing and induced vomiting. Waste management in Thermal Spring 1 (TS1) was wanting in that it is not cleaned regularly and also that there are no rules which may force users to manage the spring. The use of these springs also poses a major risk of cholera and other diarrheal outbreaks. The environment is also at risk by human excrement and waste directly disposed of into the water and the surrounding area these further flows into wetlands downstream and contaminate them. The study recommends that, Health education for thermal spring users be done as users tend to share apparatus which pose a health risk. In addition, people’s myths and believes about hot springs need to be changed through awareness campaigns. Monitoring of vector populations, water quality, and case reporting to the Swaziland Environmental Authority (SEA) and to the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) by the Ezulwini Town Board (ETB) needs to be done. Keywords: Thermal springs, environment, diarrhea, waste management, Ezulwini, Download PDF