ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Applied Science)


Title: SHENO BUTTER MARKET CHAINS ANALYSIS, THE CASE OF KIMBIBIT DISTRICT IN NORTH SHOWA ZONE OF OROMIA REGION, ETHIOPIA
Author: Dirriba Idahe, Lemma Zemedu, Endrias Geta
Keyword: Structure; conduct; performance; concentration ratio; market; constraints
Page No: 98-111
Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the structure, conduct and performance as well as major production and marketing constraints of Sheno butter market in Kimbibit District. The study took a random sample of 128 butter producer households and 31 butter traders using multi-stage sampling procedure and employed a probability proportional to sample size sampling technique. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Descriptive and test statistics were computed to describe demographic, socioeconomic and institutional characteristics and livelihoods of sample households and traders. Following the market structure criteria of concentration ratio (CR), Sheno butter market showed competitive nature in the Aso, Sheno and Addis Ababa market with CR of 18.44%, 22% and 32.41%, respectively. The maximum total gross marketing margin in the chain was 42.71% and Producer’s share of the consumer’s price was found to be highest along producers – consumers’ market channel (channel I). Key words: Structure; conduct; performance; concentration ratio; market; constraints Download PDF


Title: A STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF LOCAL SHIELDING MATERIALS FOR DIAGNOSTIC X-RAYS
Author: Esua T.B, Mangset W.E.and Sirisena U.A.I.
Keyword: X-rays, shielding, Radiation protection, Ionizing Radiation, Linear attenuation Gamma rays.
Page No: 112-117
Abstract: X-rays is one of the forms of radiation which is produced when highly energetic electrons hit a metal target and are harmful to man and his environment, but it could be attenuated or shielded dependi ng on the type of medium through which it is produced or traveled. This research was done on the above basis and was carried out at University of JosHealth center using Ray-safe (X-ray Detector). The materials used were; Bricks, concrete, Aluminum, ceramic tiles, colour glass, wood, Perspex and white glass with their normal thickness. The linear attenuation coefficient (µ) of the materials were obtained as 1.03cm-1, 1.05 cm-1, 2.10 cm-1, 1.00 cm-1, 1.75 cm-1, 0.14 cm-1, 0.35 cm-1 and 1.65 cm-1 respectively. The result showed that, Aluminum has the highest linear attenuation coefficient (µ), due to its high level of interaction with the X-rays compared to the other materials and it also has the ability to stop/attenuate X-rays by introducing a thick aluminum sheet of 4.75cm between the X-ray source (tube) and the detector (Ray-safe). The results obtained clearly indicated that aluminum with the thickness 4.75cm would best shield/attenuate 77Vp and 6.3mAs of X-rays source effectively. From the finding of this study, it is recommended that Aluminum which is cheap and can be locally sourced and can be used in place of the industrial Lead of thickness 0.15cm that has the linear Attenuation coefficient of 63.50 cm-1, which is more expensive in diagnostic X-rays. Now we will come to understand the fact that, the higher the X-rays (radiation) shielding, the higher the prevention of man and his environment from the harmful effect of X-rays beam (Radiation) produced. Key words: X-rays, shielding, Radiation protection, Ionizing Radiation, Linear attenuation Gamma rays. Download PDF


Title: THE INVESTIGATION OF SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ISOLATED BACTERIA TO ANTIBIOTIC IN RESTAURANTS IN GODFREY OKOYE UNIVERSITY
Author: Chioma Nwakanma and Chidobi, C. C.
Keyword: Antibiotic, E.coli, Kitchen Utensils, Hygiene, Environment, Sterilization
Page No: 118-124
Abstract: The investigation of susceptibility of isolated bacteria to antibiotic in restaurants in Godfrey Okoye University was carried in this study. Each of the isolated bacteria was tested with different an tibiotic discs to its resistance or susceptibility to the antibiotic. Two species drug combination were used for Table 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Using kitchen A and Fork 1 utensil species/drug combination: (Staphylococcus aureus/ Gentamycin, Septrin) and Fork 2 utensil, (Staphylococcus aureus/ Ciprofloxacin, Rocephin, Streptomycin). In comparing with Bacillus species/ Pefloxacin, Ampiclox, Zinnacep, Amoxacillin, Rocephin, Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin, Erthromycin) and Fork 2 species/drug combination for Bacillus species/Pefloxacin, Ampiclox, Zinnacep, Amoxacillin, Erthromycin). The implication of using many antibiotic treatments on Bacillus species indicated that there is certain level of resistance of bacteria. This will enable individuals suffering from food toxicity to know the specific medication to use. The source of microbial contamination maybe from water and food sources. Therefore there is urgent need for improvement in the hygienic conditions of restaurants to reduce food poisoning this can be achieved through proper washing, drying, storing and sterilization of kitchen utensils. Keywords: Antibiotic, E.coli, Kitchen Utensils, Hygiene, Environment, Sterilization Download PDF


Title: THE CHIROPRACTOR, A PERSONAL OBSERVATION REPORT
Author: Maria Angelica Deeb
Keyword: Chiropractor, chiropractic medicine, behavioral skills, job skills and traits.
Page No: 125-134
Abstract: This personal observation report will focus on the occupation of chiropractor medicine. In April 2007 with Bedford v. Riello (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div., 2007), the Appellate Division of the New Jers ey Superior Court reopened the century-old debate about the chiropractor's role in the American healthcare system. Some of the questions the debate tried to answer were, what type of care may chiropractors offer? How are chiropractors permitted to treat their patients? How do chiropractors work with medical doctors? What social skills do chiropractors need when working with other people? This paper will focus on this last question and will define the top social skills needed by chiropractors. Keywords: Chiropractor, chiropractic medicine, behavioral skills, job skills and traits. Download PDF


Title: REVIEW ON VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF WHEAT AND BARLEY, IN ETHIOPIA
Author: Dirriba Idahe Gemeda,
Keyword: Value chain, crops, economically liberate, competitiveness, wheat, barley
Page No: 135-144
Abstract: Ethiopia is known to be the centre of cereal crops diversity with significant value chain through its enormous potential to empower and economically liberate the farmers. But, its biggest challenge i s having a chain that is linked and fully integrated at national and regional levels, responsive to all players along the chain including smallholder farmers and the ultra poor. As a result the full potential of the sector is hampered by high cost of doing business driven largely by high transportation and other costs along major transit/trade corridors handling the nation’s grain trading. Therefore, the specific objectives of the paper were to review different literatures on wheat and barley value chain, market structure and to review different findings on determinants and opportunity of wheat and barley level of supply in Ethiopia. To develop this seminar document, secondary information and findings collected from various databases in URL, were reviewed rephrased and organized. Primarily, the availability and quality of seeds and inputs needs to be improved through investments in breeding, agronomic research, and mechanization, best agronomic practices need to be adopted by, in order to improve value chain efficiency and reduce consumer prices SMHF should be aggregated. The empirical review concluded the relevance and requirements of interventions in the area of agricultural research and institutional innovations to increase flow of information to farmers in fostering increased market participation and agricultural development. Key words: Value chain, crops, economically liberate, competitiveness, wheat, barley Download PDF