ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Medical and Health Sciences)


Title: ASSOCIATION OF ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, FOLATE AND VITAMIN B12 LEVELS WITH HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM
Author: Mehmet Yavuz Okyay EmelKiyak Caglayan, Ayse Yesim Gocmen, Yaprak Engin- Ustün
Keyword: Hyperemesis gravidarum, anxiety, depression, folic acid, vitamin B12
Page No: 209-216
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG) and serum folate/vitamin B12 levels and Beck score of anxiety/ depression. Methods: This is a c ase control study conducted at Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic between June 2013 - January 2014. The study group consisted of 80 with HG and 80 controls matched for age, gestational age. Age, education, occupation, family type, residence, status of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI) and smoking were questioned in all patients. Blood samples were drawn for complete blood count and calcium, magnesium, folic acid and vitamin B12 measurements. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied to all patients. Results: No significant difference was found in age and gestational week between patients and controls. HG was higher in patients at rural areas. BMI was found to be significantly lower in HG group (p<0.001). BAI and BDI scores were found to be significantly higher in patients with HG. Both folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were found to be lower in cases with HG (p<0.001). Conclusion: In our study, it was found that anxiety and depression were more common while serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in pregnant women with HG. Keywords: Hyperemesis gravidarum, anxiety, depression, folic acid, vitamin B12 Download PDF


Title: KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS IN RURAL ELIGIBLE COUPLES, MORADABAD, U.P.
Author: Sandeep Rankawat*, Prof. Dr. N.V. Muninarayanappa, Ramniwas Chaudhary
Keyword: Knowledge, Practice of contraception method, Rural area, Eligible couple
Page No: 217-222
Abstract: India was the first country in the world that recognized the need of population stabilization. Family planning is a basic human right and all the couples have right to decide freely and responsibly t he number and spacing of their children and to have information and education regarding family planning. The objective of the study was to assess the level of knowledge & practice regarding contraceptive methods among eligible couples of rural area. Materials and Methods: Descriptive survey design was adapted. The study was conducted at rural area of Moradabad. 110 eligible couples were surveyed by convenient sampling technique. The tool designed to collect the data were socio demographic Performa, Self-structured knowledge questionnaire and practice checklist on contraceptive methods. The finding of the study showed that out of 110 sample, 3% sample had adequate knowledge, 30% sample had moderate knowledge and 67% sample had inadequate knowledge towards contraceptive methods, while only 45 (40.90%) sample had practice and 65 (59.09%) sample had not practicing of contraception methods. Oral pill and male condom most common contraceptive methods that was practicing among eligible couples in rural area. Conclusion: Overall knowledge regarding contraception was inadequate but practice of use was lagging behind and efforts need to be made to improve family planning practices. Keywords: Knowledge, Practice of contraception method, Rural area, Eligible couple Download PDF


Title: A CASE OF EUGLYCEMIC DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS IN A YOUNG GIRL WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS: A RARE PRESENTATION.
Author: Dr. Henna Naqash, Dr. Mohammad Hayat Bhat and Prof. Parvaiz Ahmad Shah
Keyword: Euglycemic, ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia.
Page No: 223-227
Abstract: Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare condition and has been reported in a few patients only. We report the case of a 17 year old girl with Diabetic ketoacidosis without abnormal blood g lucose level who recovered with proper medical management. Key words: Euglycemic, ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia. Download PDF


Title: ETIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH BRUXISM-REVIEW ARTICLE
Author: Budima Pejkovska Shahpaska and Biljana Kapushevska
Keyword: Bruxism, grinding of the teeth, pressing of the teeth, occlusal splints, TMD, TMJ, Masticatory muscles.
Page No: 228-236
Abstract: Introduction? In the dictionary of prosthetic terminology, bruxism is defined as an unconscious oral habit of rhythmical, unfunctional clenching, grinding and making chewy sounds with the teeth while making movements that are not part of the masticatory function and that lead to occlusal trauma. It has multifactorial etiology which is associated with occlusal, psychological or environmental factors or habits that can compromise the ortognatic system which leads to negative consequences. Purpose: With the help of literature data the purpose of this article is to show the occurring, the diagnosis of bruxism, its etiological factors, clinical manifestations and its therapy with occlusal inserters (splints). Material and methods: Searching the data was completed by using information on the internet on Research gate, Pub med, Science Direct, by analyzing written articles and books and student books. Key words like bruxism, etiology and symptoms, injuries on the teeth from attrition, teeth grinding, muscle articular disorder, temporomandibular disorder, occlusal splints were used. From 180 articles that were analyzed and many internet pages, 45 articles were involved in writing this review article and two textbooks that process the most contemporary aspect form this area, are cited suitably and are shown in the literature. Results: From the analyzed literature results were obtained that the main consequences from the bruxism are muscle fatigue, pain, wasting of the incisal edges and occlusal surfaces of the teeth, and in severe cases, loss of teeth, dental implants, headaches, periodontal lesions and TMD (dysfunctions of the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint (TMJ)). These clinical manifestations can lead to increased problems associated with oral rehabilitation and damage to the prosthetic restorations. Results that followed showed subsequent reduction of the vertical dimension of the orofacial system. All these problems negatively affect the quality of life of the patient. Results for early diagnosis and identification of the etiological factors of bruxism are important for the prevention of the disease and progression of the lesions of the orofacial structures. This prevents pain of the craniofacial muscles, allowing it to restore the structures that have been lost and changed. Thus the achievement of physiological vertical dimension is allowed. Conclusion: From all the data and results obtained from the researched literature it was found out that bruxism as a parafunctional habit is present in the modern way of living, which contributes to changes in the oral-sensory-motor system carrying complete changes in the orofacial region. For the treatment of bruxism multidisciplinary approach is inevitable, in order to prevent violations of the osteo-dental structures. Lately, its prevalence is increasing and is related to several factors such as stress, drugs, anxiety, changes in lifestyle and nutrition as well as distortion of the sleep. Therefore the therapist should be aware of its signs and symptoms, all aimed through modern diagnostic protocols and therapeutic modalities to ensure the best treatment plan of the patient. Key words: Bruxism, grinding of the teeth, pressing of the teeth, occlusal splints, TMD, TMJ, Masticatory muscles. Download PDF


Title: ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS TOWARDS POSTOPERATIVE INFECTIONS OF PATIENTS ADMITTED TO SURGICAL WARD AT PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN MEKELLE TOWN, TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA, A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Author: Zaid Tadesse Gebrezgabher, Bajeh Ojochide Lydia, Gerezgiher Buruh Abera, Derbachew Hailemariam, Berhe Desalegn
Keyword: Healthcare providers, Knowledge, Attitude, Postoperative infection
Page No: 237-243
Abstract: Background: Postoperative infections contribute to morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, increased healthcare costs and longer hospital stays. Globally, standard precautions of infection cont rol are considered an effective means of protecting healthcare workers, patients and the public and reducing nosocomial infections.The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge and the attitude of healthcare providers towards post-operative infections of Patients Admitted to Surgical Ward at Public Hospitals in Mekelle Town, Tigray, Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected through the administration of structured questionnaire on 114 health care providers selected by simple random sampling technique. Data were collected for five days. Data was gathered by trained health care providers whom were selected by their data collection experience. Two supervisors were selected to check the data during collection. After data was collected on participants’ knowledge and attitude through the administered questionnaire, each participant’s response was graded out of hundred, then the result was grouped accordingly and analysed by SPSS. Result: Out of a total of 114 respondents, 75(65.8%) were male. Fifty-five (48%) of health care providers were in the age group of 26-35. Sixty (52.6%) were married. Concerning the work experience of health care providers 74 (65%) were degree holders. Fifty three (46.4%) had moderate knowledge and 83.3% had a positive attitude towards postoperative infection. Conclusion and Recommendations: Although the majority of respondents had moderate knowledge and positive attitude towards postoperative infections, strengthening and integrating universal precaution with the routine services through provision of training and preparing and introducing healthcare workers to infection prevention standard of practice, protocol, rules, regulation and opportunities to promote the desired team spirit at all health facility levels are recommended. Key words: Healthcare providers, Knowledge, Attitude, Postoperative infection Download PDF


Title: ELSOBKI STAGING SYSTEM: LEVEL SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE LATERAL PHARYNGEAL WALL COLLAPSE IN OSA PATIENTS
Author: Ahmed Abdelfattah Elsobki
Keyword: Pharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, Nosocomial etc.
Page No: 244-246
Abstract: Lateral pharyngeal wall collapse and splinting possibilities is still an incompletely answered question in sleep surgery. Sixty three percent of our revision cases in the last six years was due to fa ilure to properly splint the collapsing lateral pharyngeal walls specially at the hypopharyngeal level. To improve our outcome we thought about level specific staging system of the lateral pharyngeal walls in OSA patients Key words: Pharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, Nosocomial etc. Download PDF


Title: MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF INFLUENZA A (H3N2) AND A (H1N1) PDM09 VIRUSES CIRCULATING IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 2014
Author: Edith Nkwembe*, Roxana Cintron*, WendySessions, HugoKavunga, PelagieBabakazo,LéonieManya, Jean Jacques Muyembe
Keyword: Molecular, Analysis, Influenza viruses, DRCongo
Page No: 247-264
Abstract: Background: Very little is known about influenza viruses circulating in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We aim to characterize genetically and antigenically Influenza A (H3N2) and A (H1N1) pd m09 viruses circulating in the country. Methods: From August to December 2014, specimens were collected from patients with influenza like-illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in various surveillance sites. Specimens were tested using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for the detection of influenza viruses. Positive influenza samples with a cycle threshold (Ct) <30 were genetically and antigenically characterized. Results: 32 samples tested were found positive to influenza A with Ct<30. At CDC Atlanta, 28 out of 32 samples (88%) were tested positive for influenza A virus, including 26 seasonal influenza A viruses subtype H3N2 and 2 pandemic influenza A viruses subtype H1N1pdm 2009. The majority of influenza A (H3N2) viruses were antigenically related to the A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 vaccine virus, while two influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 isolates were antigenically characterized as A/California/07/2009-like. All A (H3N2) and A (H1N1) pdm09 virus isolates characterized were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir. Conclusion: Two genetically distinct influenza subtypes were co-circulating in the DR Congo. Effective measures against influenza have been suggested. Keywords: Molecular, Analysis, Influenza viruses, DRCongo Download PDF


Title: PREVALENCE OF HOUSEHOLD FOOD INSECURITY AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH NUTRITIONAL OUTCOMES OF CHILDREN AGED 6-59 MONTHS IN HOSSANA TOWN, HADIYA ZONE, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
Author: Kidist Daniel*,Tefera Belachew, Chernet Hailu,Ermias Abera
Keyword: Stunting, Wasting, Underweight and Food insecurity.
Page No: 265-280
Abstract: Back ground: Food insecurity and consequent of malnutrition are major barriers to development in Ethiopia. High malnutrition rates in the country set a substantial obstacle to attaining better child health consequents. This study was tried to explore the magnitude of household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 6 to 59 months, as well as the association between food insecurity and nutritional status in the study area. Objective: To assess the prevalence of household food insecurity and its association with nutritional outcomes of children aged 6-59 months in Hossana town. Methods: A cross sectional study design was conducted to assess prevalence of household food insecurity and nutritional outcomes of children in Hossana Town. Before data collection list of households with eligible children were identified from health extension workers and proportionate to sample size allocation was employed to each kebele. A total 414 sample households were selected from each kebele using systematic random sampling method by calculating the sampling interval (k=4). Data was cleaned and entered into computer by using EPI Info version 3.5.3 and the analysis was done using SPSS version 20.Anthropometric data were entered in WHO anthrosoftware version 3.2.2.Different frequency tables and descriptive measures were used to describe the study variables. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was done to see the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: The result of this study shows8% of children were wasted, 14.4 % were underweight and 43.3 % were stunted. Prevalence of household food insecurity was 79.1 %. Household food insecurity was associated with underweight (AOR= 4.0, 95% CI: 1.33- 11.39). Child age (AOR=0.056, 95% CI: 0.011- 0.288)and child sex (AOR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.186-3.556) were associated with stunting. Family size (AOR=3.9, 95% CI: 2.097- 7.355) and diarrhea (AOR= 8.1, 95% CI: 3.678-17.86) in the last two weeks preceding the survey were predictors of wasting and underweight respectively. Conclusions: Household food insecurity and malnutrition like underweight, wasting and stunting was high in Hossana town. Household food insecurity was associated with underweight, but not significantly associated with stunting and wasting. Therefore, implementers should focus on improving household food insecurity and nutritional status. Key words: Stunting, Wasting, Underweight and Food insecurity. Download PDF


Title: THE CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) WITH HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA, AND TYPE 2 DIABETES AMONG LIBYANS CITIZENS
Author: Eljamay Salwa Muftah and Tawfeg A. Elhisadi
Keyword: Cholesterol; age; gender; body mass index; blood sugar.
Page No: 281-285
Abstract: Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.(1) Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for a number of common causes of disease and death including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some cancers.(2,3) The aim of this study is to describe the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus type 2, among Libyan citizens. This study watched the development of BMI in 516 female and male patients as well as 117 healthy weight as counterpart, from 15 to 62 years old of age (32.06 ±10.8), randomly selected to take a part in this study. This paper does not cover type 1 diabetes. In this study, plasma cholesterol and type 2 diabetes are closely linked with body mass index (BMI). The risk of diabetes and plasma cholesterol in obese people is greater when compared to those of healthy weight counterpart. Keywords: Cholesterol; age; gender; body mass index; blood sugar. Download PDF


Title: HISTOLOGICAL SUBTYPES OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA DIAGNOSED AT THE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, LUSAKA, ZAMBIA
Author: Steward Mudenda, Trevor Kaile, Marah Simakando, Zifa Ngwira, Julius Peter*, Clemence Marimo, Derick Munkombwe, Webrod Mufwambi, Chichonyi Aubrey Kalungia, Fred Fredrick Bangara and Christopher Newton Phiri
Keyword: Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic tumour, histological subtypes, Zambia.
Page No: 286-295
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary hepatic tumour which develops from hepatocytes and is the 5th most common cancer worldwide. A greater burden of HCC occurs due to hep atitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) which are endemic in regions that are mostly resource constrained sub-Saharan Africa. HCC may also occur due to exposure to aflatoxin B1 and chronic alcoholism. This study was carried out to determine the distribution of HCC subtypes at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Aim: To determine the distribution of the histological subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma across all ages and sex groups at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka. Materials/Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study that was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) from February 2016 to July 2016.These were tissues diagnosed as HCC from January 2012 to December 2015. Seventeenarchival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) liver biopsy specimen blocks were obtained, sectioned, re-stained and examined histologically. Tissues were cut for histological analysis using a microtome. Haematoxylin and Eosin staining was done on the slides to confirm HCC status. Classification of HCC was done according to standard World Health Organization criteria. The results were matched for age and sex to detect any similarities and differences. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20.0 for windows. Fisher’s exact test with a p-value of less than 0.05 was used to indicate statistical significance of the results. Results: Out of the 17 cases of HCC examined, 9/17 (52.9%) of the cases occurred in people below the age of 50 years and was commonly diagnosed in men 12/17 (70.6%) than in women5/17 (29.4%). The histological subtypes of HCC reported in this study were trabecular pattern 9/17 (52.9%), pseudo glandular pattern 4/17 (23.5%), solid pattern 2/17 (11.8%), diffuse pattern 1/17 (5.9%), and fibro lamellar pattern 1/17 (5.9%). Conclusion: HCC was found to occur more commonly in males between the ages of 21-40 years old. The trabecular histological subtype was the predominant pattern of HCC in our patients at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia. Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic tumour, histological subtypes, Zambia. Download PDF


Title: THE SHORT TIME EFFECT OF EXTRACT OF SORGHUM BICOLOR (JOBELYN) ON THE HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF PATIENTS WITH SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA
Author: Dosunmu A. O, Akinbami A. A, Onakoya J. A. A, Yemitan O. K., Adebola Arogundade M.O.
Keyword: Haematological parameters. Phytochemical. Sickle cell anaemia. Sorghum bicolor
Page No: 296-302
Abstract: Sickle cell anaemia in South West Nigeria has a prevalence of 2.4 %. It is characterized by recurrent crisis like bone pain, hyper haemolysis, acute sequestration, red cell aplasia and progressive or gan damage. These cause high absenteeism at school and at work with a significant reduction in life expectancy. The phytochemical extract of sorghum bicolor has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect; and to increase the haemoglobin in experimental rat. The extract is consumed widely in Nigeria by patients with sickle cell anaemia. This study seeks to assess the effect of this extract on haemopoiesis in these patients. The study population was the patients attending the adult haematology clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. It was a randomized open label study with 105 consenting participants. One group was given folic acid 5mg twice daily and paludrine 200mg daily. The other group had in addition, 1gm of extract per day in two divided doses for 4 weeks. The haematological parameters were taken weekly. After 4 weeks of taking the extract, there were reduction in white blood cells (p= 0.10) and platelet counts (p= 0.03).There were significant reductions in the mean red cell haemoglobin (p=0.0004), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (p=0.0001) while the reduction in mean cell volume and haematocrit changes were minimal (p=0.3and 0.5 respectively). The reduction in leukocytes and platelets counts suggests an anti-inflammatory effect of the extract which may have a clinically positive effect. The significantly reduced cellular haemoglobin concentration and minimal changes in haematocrit demonstrate that the extract will not unduly increase the red cell haemoglobin concentration which may promote sickling. Key words: Haematological parameters. Phytochemical. Sickle cell anaemia. Sorghum bicolor Download PDF


Title: MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS COMPLEX STRAINS IN KINSHASA, DR CONGO
Author: Hugo Kavunga*, Justin Masumu, Michel Kaswa, Muriel Aloni, Léontine Nkuku, Dieudonné Mumba, Georges Tshilenge, Van der Auwera Gert, Jean Jacques Muyembe
Keyword: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains, Regions of Difference, Ziehl-Neelsen, Genotype® MTBDR plus, Kinshasa
Page No: 303-312
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious and communicable granulomatous disease caused by the acid fast bacilli bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease is mainly spread through inhalation of infec ted droplets expelled from infected lungs. Transmission, pathogenicity, geographical spread and host ranges differ among the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) subspecies. We typed Mycobacterium spp. from pulmonary secretion samples collected from suspected TB patients, selected in different health centres in Kinshasa, the capital city of DR Congo, where TB is highly endemic. Analysis was conducted using Ziehl-Neelsen, Genotype® MTBDR plus and PCR techniques. The results showed that out of 155 samples collected from suspected TB patients, 95 (61.2%) were positive using the bacteriological Ziehl-Neelsen test. Among these 95 positive samples, the Genotype® MTBDR plus test (Hain® test) characterized 93 samples (97.9%) as belonging to the MTBC. The remaining two samples (2.1%) that could not be amplified were classified as Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT). These 93 Genotype® MTBDR plus positive samples were further characterized using the PCR technique based on genomic Regions of Difference whereby 74 samples (79.5%) were classified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 16 (17.2%) as M. africanum, 1 (1%) as M. bovis and the remaining 2 samples could not be classified. This study reveals the co-circulation of various MTB species in the human population of Kinshasa where most TB patients are infected with M. tuberculosis or M. africanum. However the presence of the zoonotic M. bovis in the human population highlights the possible existence of the animal-human transmission. Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains, Regions of Difference, Ziehl-Neelsen, Genotype® MTBDR plus, Kinshasa Download PDF