ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Medical and Health Sciences)


Title: EFFECT OF TRAMADOL ON BILIRUBIN, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND LIVER ENZYMES (AST, ALT) IN ANIMAL MODELS
Author: Osadolor H. B. and Omo-Erhabor J.A.
Keyword: Tramadol, Bilirubin, AST, ALT, Animal Models
Page No: 67-73
Abstract: Demand of tramadol in southern Nigeria has been on the increase and this demand has been shown to be made by youths. Uses include improved sexual performance and as lasting energy source for those wh o are labourers. The consequent misuse of tramadol at self-recommended doses for sexual improvement prompted the assessment of the effect of tramadol at these doses on hepatic function of male and female Oryctolaguscunniculus (European rabbits). Twenty seven healthy rabbits were used, weighing 1.0 to 2.0kg. These were divided into four groups of male and female controls and male and female tramadol treated groups. Tramadol treated groups were further divided into oral and intramuscularly administered groups. Animals were housed under laboratory conditions with commercially prepared feed and water ad libitum and one dark one light cycle throughout the experiment. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment and biochemical assays performed: Transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bilirubin (Total and Direct) (TB and DB respectively), serum total protein (TP) and albumin levels (ALB). Tramadol treated groups were compared with control groups at the end of the study as well as within group comparison. Decrease activity was observed for AST (p<0.01) and ALP (p<0.0001). TP showed decreased levels (p<0.01) and TB and DB also showed decreased levels (p<0.05). ALT and ALB showed no change (p>0.05). This study suggest effective conjugative function of the liver with subsequent effective maintenance of hepatocyte integrity, thus, the ability of the liver to effectively metabolize tramadol at the doses been considered. Key words:Tramadol, Bilirubin, AST, ALT, Animal Models Download PDF


Title: PREVALENCE OF MALARIA; A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY AT BAHIR DAR HEALTH CENTER, NORTHWEST-ETHIOPIA
Author: Awoke Derbie*, Daniel Mekonnen
Keyword: Malaria, Prevalence, Bahir Dar-Ethiopia.
Page No: 74-79
Abstract: Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem worldwide. It primarily affects low- and lower-middle income countries. Within endemic countries, the poorest and most marginalized communiti es are the most severely affected, having the highest risks associated with malaria. Updated epidemiological information regarding the prevalence of malaria helps to determine the magnitude of the problem and to design and implement effective prevention and control measures. Methods and materials: A cross sectional survey was conducted for four consecutive months from November 2014 to February 2015 at Bahir Dar health center. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured questionnaires. Capillary blood samples were collected for thick and thin blood films, stained with Giemsa stains and examined microscopically for the detection and identification of plasmodium parasites. Results: Of 180 patients (age range; 8 months to 63 years) for blood film malaria parasites examinations, 69 (38.3%) were positive for malaria. Most of malaria infected individuals, 26(37.7) were in the age group 19-45 years. The prevalence malaria was high among females (60%) than males (40%). The two most important species of malaria identified were P. falciparum in 45(65.2%) patients and P. vivax in 24(34.8%). Conclusions: Although the numbers of study subjects were quite limited to draw strong conclusions, the observed prevalence calls up concerned stakeholders to undertake sustainable malaria prevention and control measures. Key words: Malaria, Prevalence, Bahir Dar-Ethiopia. Download PDF


Title: PERCEIVED INFLUENCE OF INTERDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION AMONG HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS ON INDUSTRIAL HARMONY IN UNTH, ENUGU, NIGERIA.
Author: Goodman John Ani., Okoronkwo Ijeoma L., Nwodoh Chijioke Oliver, Ephraim O. Dyages, Moses I. Akese
Keyword: Interdisciplinary, Collaboration, Industrial Harmony.
Page No: 80-92
Abstract: Aim: This study was conceived to determine the factors influencing industrial harmony among health care professionals in UNTH, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State. The study was specifically aimed at assessing the influence of interdisciplinary collaboration among health care professionals on industrial harmony. Materials and Methods: The study used a descriptive survey design. Purposive sampling was used to select medicine, nursing, pharmacy and medical laboratory science disciplines. The population of study was 1371, with the Krejcie-Morgan formula for finite population, a sample size of 300 health care professionals, consisting of eighty doctors, one hundred and ten nurses, twenty pharmacists and fourteen Medical Laboratory Scientists was obtained. A researcher-developed questionnaire was employed to collect data from the respondents. Inferential statistics consisting Chi Square and Analysis of Variance was used to analyze data and test the hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance. Results: Results showed that the perceived influence of interdisciplinary collaboration among health care professionals on industrial harmony was statistically significant with the health care professionals reporting a favorable interdisciplinary collaboration (2.86 ±0.76, p= 0.0000). Conclusion: There existed good interdisciplinary collaboration among health care professionals but also a need for improvement and a more inclusive approach so clients of health care would benefit form harmonious working relationship among health care professionals. Keywords: Interdisciplinary, Collaboration, Industrial Harmony. Download PDF


Title: URINARY TRACT INFECTION BY BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA IN A MALE CHILD: A RARE CASE REPORT
Author: Awadhesh Kumar, Chinmoy Sahu, Aarti Negi, Vijay Bahadur Yadav, Kashi Nath Prasad
Keyword: Burkholderia cepacia, Urinary tract infection, Antibiotics, Nosocomial, Male Patient
Page No: 93-94
Abstract: Burkholderia cepacia organisms are typically found in water and soil and can survive for prolonged periods in moist environments. They usually cause nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patient s. They are resistant to multiple antibiotics. Rarely they can cause urinary tract infection in immunocompromised patients. In our case, a 13 year old boy presented with features of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). He was diagnosed to have posterior urethral valve and operated. After 1 week of discharge, he came again with features of UTI. Culture urine revealed growth of Burkholderia cepacia. It was only sensitive to Ceftazidime. He was given IV ceftazidime. He recovered and discharged. This organism should be suspected when UTI is seen in male patients with obstructive features. Key Words: Burkholderia cepacia, Urinary tract infection, Antibiotics, Nosocomial, Male Patient Download PDF