ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Medical and Health Sciences)


Title: PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ANALGESICS MISUSED AMONG URBAN YOUNG ADULTS OF EAST SIKKIM: A CONTROLLED, CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Author: Deepanjana Dass, Dr. (Prof.) Bidita Khandelwal
Keyword: Analgesic, Misuse, Prevalence, Characteristics, Sikkim.
Page No: 01-07
Abstract: Prescription medications are being consumed worldwide without any medical supervision, and the improper use of prescription analgesic misuse has emerged as a serious health issue. Several studies hav e been conducted in different countries to understand the prevalence and characteristics of analgesic misuse. This study is aimed at estimating the prevalence and characteristics of analgesic misuse in an urban area of Sikkim in a young adult population (15 – 40 years of age) of either sex. A pre devised questionnaire on the population survey of analgesic misuse and brief pain inventory was administered to n=700 participants after obtaining the informed consent. Data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Prevalence of analgesic misuse was found to be 13%. Mostly tablets (92.30%) were being consumed, without prescription (75.80%) and only one analgesic was being used (63.70%) for almost a year or more. Majority of the participants didn’t change analgesics ever (89.0%) and never undergone any treatment for pain (83.50%). Majority of the participants were unaware of the effects of analgesic use (94.50%). Misuse of analgesics was prevalent. Most of the analgesics misused were in tablet form and were obtained without prescription and self-medication was prevalent and very few participants undergone any treatment for pain. Key words: Analgesic, Misuse, Prevalence, Characteristics, Sikkim. Download PDF


Title: RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF PATIENTS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM DURING PREGNANCY AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE: OBSTETRIC AND NEONATAL OUTCOME
Author: Mukta Agarwal, Sutapan Samanta, Divendu Bhushan
Keyword: Hypothyroidism, Pregnancy, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Page No: 08-11
Abstract: Objective: Purpose of this study was to evaluate the obstetric and neonatal outcome associated with hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Material and methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all women registered in our antenatal clinic between January’11 to December’11.Patients were either diagnosed prior to pregnancy or diagnosed in first trimester. These all patients were analyzed in terms of incidence of obstetric complications, mode of delivery, neonatal outcome and neonatal TSH. Results: 90 patients were diagnosed to have hypothyroidism with pregnancy during this period. Mean age of these patients were 26.5 years. Among obstetric complications most common was pre-eclampsia 30 %( 17/90) followed by GDM 24.5 %( 14/90) and IUGR 17.5% (21/90).44.4 %( 40/90) deliveries occurred by LSCS. Among neonatal complications, 27.7% (25/90) patients had fetal distress, 12% (11/90) babies has low APGAR scores (=7), 3.3% (3/90) patients had intra-uterine fetal demise (IUD) and 2.5% (2/90) had abortion. None of the neonate had hypothyroidism. Mean neonatal TSH was 1.63mIU/ml (ranged between 0.1-8.72). Conclusion: Patients with hypothyroidism during pregnancy were found to have increased risk of obstetric complications, operative delivery and fetal distress, though were not found to be associated with increased incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism. Key words: Hypothyroidism, Pregnancy, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Download PDF


Title: AN AUDIT OF ACELLULAR DERMAL MATRIX (ADM) ASSISTED BREAST RECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES – ARE ANTIBIOTICS UNAVOIDABLE?
Author: Mario Metry, Mr. Shaaban, Rob Thomas, Zainab Shakoor, Youssef Magdi, Michael Carr
Keyword: Acellular Dermal Matrix; Breast Cancer; Reconstruction; Guidelines; Breast implant; Expander
Page No: 12-16
Abstract: Introduction: The use of ADM grafts in breast reconstruction has been widely adopted in the UK. Following the National Mastectomy and Breast. Reconstruction Audit, joint guidelines from ABS and BAPR AS were published in 2013 with regards to the use of ADMs in breast reconstruction. The aim is to audit clinical outcomes in our district general unit against these guidelines. Method: Data were collected retrospectively from medical records over a one-year period. Indications; cautions; surgical technique; post-operative infection; implant loss; patient reported outcome measures; unit and organization criteria were recorded. Results: A total of 23 patients in whom ADM was used were included in the study. The median age was 52 y (40-69y), Average BMI 25. 14 patient s (60.8%) had immediate reconstruction with expander or dual chamber implant, 5 patients (21%) had delayed 2nd stage reconstruction and 4 patients (17.3%) had risk-reducing mastectomy. We met the NMBRA (National Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction Audit) target in achieving 0% return to the theatre for local complications, compared with NMBRA of 7.6%. We also had 4% rate of implant loss within 3 months compared 9% in NMBRA. 100%of our patients received written information about breast reconstruction. 2patients (8.6%) had proven wound infection. 5 patients (23%) took a further course of antibiotics for suspected wound infection. The debate lies in the need for antibiotics for the Red Breast Syndrome that may improve without antibiotics vs. the possible loss of implant if proven infection and hence the high antibiotic rate. Key Words: Acellular Dermal Matrix; Breast Cancer; Reconstruction; Guidelines; Breast implant; Expander Download PDF


Title: SPORADIC FORM OF WASSEL TYPE VII PREAXIAL POLYDACTYLY
Author: Kolade-Yunusa H.O
Keyword: Sporadic, preaxial polydactyly, Wassel Type VII.
Page No: 17-19
Abstract: Polydactyl is a congenital physical anomaly of the fingers and toes. Preaxial polydactyly is rare in this environment and is associated with several syndromes. This is a report of a patient with a ra re sporadic form of preaxial polydactyly. Keywords: Sporadic, preaxial polydactyly, Wassel Type VII. Download PDF


Title: PUBLIC HEALTH EVALUATION OF CADMIUM, LEAD, ARSENIC AND COPPER IN CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (CAT FISH) REARED IN TARPAULIN PONDS (NON-NATURAL HABITAT) IN BENIN CITY
Author: Osadolor, H.B and Igudia, N. M
Keyword: Cat fish, toxic metals, Tarpaulin Ponds
Page No: 20-29
Abstract: Background: Studies have evaluated the level of toxic metals in catfish but no study has been carried out to evaluate the levels of toxic metals in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) reared in tarpaulin po nds in Nigeria. Therefore, this study seeks to evaluate the concentration of cadmium, lead, arsenic and copper in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) reared in tarpaulin ponds in Benin City and to correlate their concentrations in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) obtained from a natural source. Materials and Methods: Catfish were obtained from five different farms in Benin City and the controls were gotten from oviariver. The catfish samples were adequately washed and the concentrations of cadmium, lead, arsenic and copper were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer. Results: The concentrations of lead (0.072±0.00and cadmium (0.013±0.00 in the tissues and the concentrations of arsenic (0.011±0.00, in the blood samples of catfish from all five tarpaulin farms were significantly higher (p<0.01) while the cadmium level in the blood samples were lower compared to controls (0.025±0.001mg/g, 0.008±0.00mg/g and with the exception of one tarpaulin pond, Copper concentrations (114.96±1.69, in tissues of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) grown in tarpaulin ponds were significantly higher (p<0.01) compared to controls (101.23±0.89). The concentrations of arsenic (0.02±0.00 and 0.015±0.00) in some of the tissue samples were also significantly higher compared to controls (0.014b±0.001). Conclusion: Catfish farmed in tarpaulin contain statistically significant (p<0.01) concentrations of cadmium, lead, arsenic and copper and their concentrations are well above the WHO permissible limit. Key Words: Cat fish, toxic metals, Tarpaulin Ponds Download PDF


Title: MANAGEMENT OF SMALL ANEURYSMS OF THE HAND: LITERATURE REVIEW
Author: Mario Metry, Zainab Shakoor, Mohamed Shaaban, Mr. Adam Sowiniski
Keyword: Artery aneurysms, Hypothenar hammer syndrome.
Page No: 30-35
Abstract: Distal ulnar artery aneurysms, although uncommon, have been well described in adults as a clinical finding as a part of the hypothenar hammer syndrome. Congenital true aneurysms of the ulnar artery, however, are rare. The diagnostic and treatment algorithms for ulnar artery aneurysm are not well established because the disease is very rare. Discussion: There should be a clear defined algorithm for Diagnosing and treatment of Hand Aneurysms. In this paper we are discussing the literature review of the small hand aneurysm m, mainly the ulnar artery and also giving an example from our practice of case that presented with us with Small thrombosed ulnar aneurysm that we dealt with it with our best practice at the time. Therefore the need for clarification of the possible management ways of the peripheral hand aneurysms have issued and this literature review was done for discussing the possible ways along with the preferred methods for managing peripheral hand aneurysms. Conclusion: Treatment of ulnar artery aneurysms should notbe determined by the presence of symptoms. The development of thromboembolic complications with subsequent finger and hand ischemia can occur without warning signs. The surgical options for ulnar artery aneurysms depend on the presence of adequate perfusion in the hand after the aneurysm is excluded from the hand circulation. The reconstruction can be achieved by a primary end-to-endanastomosis if there is no tension or with the use of an interposition vein graftif the defect is large. So, we conclude that an algorithm needs to be existed for the treatment of such rare conditions. Key Words: Artery aneurysms, Hypothenar hammer syndrome, Download PDF


Title: EVALUATION OF SOME REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES AND LIVER ENZYMES AMONGST MALE CANNABIS SATIVA SMOKERS IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA
Author: Osadolor, B.Humphrey and Orhue E.Samuel
Keyword: Cannabis sativa, hormones, enzymes, males
Page No: 36-39
Abstract: Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug. The chemical compound (cannabinoid) in the plant Cannabis abused is assumed to be the cause a lot of medical con ditions. There is paucity of information on the effects of this herb on certain reproductive hormones and liver enzymes, therefore this study is aimed at accessing the liver function, Hormonal activities and pancreatic amylase activities in male Cannabis smokers in Benin City. Samples were collected from two hundred (n=200) subjects which served as Cannabis smokers group and another one hundred (n=100) control as non-Cannabis smokers group. Samples were analyzed using Reflotron Plus for Liver function test and Pancreatic Amylase and Stat Fax 4200 ELISA System for Hormonal profile. From this study, Liver function tests ALT, AST,GGT and ALP were higher in smokers than non-smokers (P < 0.01), except for P-amylase which showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Testosterone, FSH, LH and TSH levels were lower in smokers than non-smokers (P<0.001).It is therefore concluded that smoking Cannabis may cause elevation of liver enzymes, reduce serum TSH and can significantly depress serum testosterone concentration in males and this could significantly contribute to male infertility. Key Words: Cannabis sativa, hormones, enzymes, males Download PDF


Title: PHYSIOTHERAPY SUPERIORITY OVER DRUG THERAPY ACCORDING TO NANODIAGNOSTICS
Author: Bitsoev Vladimir Dodtievich
Keyword: Physio-dynamics, physio-kinetics, supramolecular structures, blood spectrum biopsy.
Page No: 40-58
Abstract: The present report deals with physio-dynamics and physio-kinetics regulated and controlled by nanotechnologies without disorders of supramolecular structures of integral organism, complications or ne gative sequelae. Such high levels of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are not observed in global pharmaceutical science. This is an advantage of physiotherapy over drug therapy. Key words: Physio-dynamics, physio-kinetics, supramolecular structures, blood spectrum biopsy. Download PDF


Title: KNOWLEDGE, ALTITUDE AND PERSPECTIVE OF RADIATION AMONG HEALTHCARE GIVERS IN AN AFRICAN HEALTH FACILITY.
Author: H. O Kolade-Yunusa, A. S Haruna, S. C Owoeye
Keyword: Radiology department, Radiation, Healthcare givers, Safety, Healthcare facility, Nigeria, Africa.
Page No: 59-66
Abstract: Abstract Background: There is need for frank discussion between the staff of the department of radiology and staff of other departments about the risks and benefit of the use of various imaging devi ces using radiation in the healthcare facilities. Aim is to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of radiation and activity of radiology department among fellow healthcare givers in a tertiary health care facility. Methods: This was a cross – sectional study involving four hundred and twenty healthcare givers. It was a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Among the four our hundred and twenty healthcare givers,two hundred and thirty-one (55.0%)were males while 189 (45.0%). Their mean age was 41.2 years ±13.31, ranged between 20 and 69 years. When asked if staff were exposed to radiation emitted by radiology department, two hundred and seventy three (65.0%) believes ‘yes’ they were exposed while 147 (35.0%) do not think so. Of these responses, those who feel they are expose to radiation were 105 Vs 168 (Junior Vs Senior) and those who felt not exposed were 63 Vs 84 (Junior Vs Senior). This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: The operational control and safety regulation of the department needs to be propagated to give confident to the patients and co-workers in the hospital. Key Words: Radiology department, Radiation, Healthcare givers, Safety, Healthcare facility, Nigeria, Africa. Download PDF