ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Applied Science)


Title: SOIL SEED BANK OF NATIVE AND EXOTIC PLANTS IN TWO ADJACENT ECOSYSTEMS OF MOIST TROPICS
Author: Upama Mall, Kumari Poonam, Gopal S. Singh
Keyword: Soil seed bank, Exotic plants, Phenology, Ecosystem, Moist tropics.
Page No: 01-12
Abstract: Most of studies of exotic species in plant communities have focused on analyzing the distribution and occurrence in standing vegetation, but in this paper we have discussed ecological study of soil s eed bank of native/exotic plants in two adjacent ecosystems of moist tropics. Soil seed bank are important component of ecosystems. It is viable seeds on soil surface or buried in the soil. Now-a-days soil seed bank of invasive plants has become important at various ecological aspects in terms of belowground diversity, standing vegetation dynamics and its importance at global scale due to interference of human, urban encroachment, agricultural productivity. So detail analysis of seed bank of native and invasive species in two adjacent ecosystems have examined in terms of seed density at different soil depth, their habit life form, nativity, seed bank types, phenological events along with economic and ethno utilization. Both native and exotic species are used in traditional medicine and making ropes, fibers and as forage and fodder for cattles. Phenological study of species is important to know ecological periodicity of flowering, fruiting, seed production, pollination and seed dispersal according to climate change. Keywords: Soil seed bank, Exotic plants, Phenology, Ecosystem, Moist tropics. Download PDF


Title: A NOVEL IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY APPROACH FOR INCREASING CAPILLARY NUMBER BY ENHANCING DEPTH OF PENETRATION IN ABU DHABI CARBONATE RESERVOIRS
Author: Arsalan Ansari*, Mohammed Haroun, Mohammed Motiur Rahman, George V. Chilingar, Hemanta Sarma
Keyword: Electrokinetic Low-concentration acid IOR, Enhancing Capillary Number, Enhancing Depth of Penetration, Stimulation, Tight Carbonates.
Page No: 13-36
Abstract: During the last few decades, there has been a global increase in oil demand by 35%. Besides, the petroleum industry is faced with a number of challenges when considering the reservoir such as low swe ep efficiency, formation damage and implementing costly techniques to enhance and improve the oil recovery. Electrokinetic Low-concentration acid IOR (EK LCA-IOR) is one of the emerging IOR technologies, which involves the application of the Low-concentration acidizing integrated with electrically enhanced oil recovery (EK-EOR). This research focusses on analyzing the effectiveness of the EK LCA-IOR process in Abu Dhabi carbonates, improving the capillary number and enhancing depth of penetration. Core-flood tests were conducted by saturating Abu Dhabi carbonate core-plugs with medium crude oil in a specially designed core-flood setup at Abu Dhabi reservoir conditions. After the water flooding stage, EK LCA-IOR was applied using varying voltage gradients and acid concentrations upto 1.2% HCl injected at the anode and transported by EK to the target producer (cathode). Moreover, the capillary number change, and Single Energy CT Scan (SECTS) results were analyzed in order to observe the effect on rock-fluid interaction to control rock adsorption capacity through interfacial tension and depth of penetration. Several correlations at reservoir conditions related to acid concentration, displacement efficiency and permeability enhancement have shown that the application of water flooding on the carbonate cores yields an average oil recovery of 58%. An additional 17-28% oil recovery was enhanced by the application of EK LCA-IOR recording a maximum oil displacement of 88%. In addition, EK LCA-IOR was shown to enhance the reservoir’s permeability by 53% on average across the tested core-plugs. EK LCA-IOR also improves the capillary number by 500% in Water-wet core plugs and 1500% in Oil-wet core plugs, mainly due to a decrease in interfacial tension. This indicates the decrease in acid adsorption as acid is precisely transported to the targeted production well through the tortuous path with an increased depth of penetration as proven by the SECTS results where EK LCA-IOR has penetrated 60% of core-length that revealed minor fractures, precisely delivering the acid front throughout the core-plug. Finally, EK LCA-IOR enhances capillary number along with an increased depth of penetration while allowing us to save on the OPEX by maintaining decreased power consumption while reducing the acid/water requirement upto 10 times. This study takes one step forward towards the development of EK Low-concentration acid IOR method feasible for Abu Dhabi oil fields in order to make smart water floods applicable for complex fractured reservoirs of UAE. Keywords: Electrokinetic Low-concentration acid IOR, Enhancing Capillary Number, Enhancing Depth of Penetration, Stimulation, Tight Carbonates. Download PDF


Title: FIELD EVALUATION OF SEVEN VARIETIES OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF CAMEROON
Author: P Kosma, I Saidou, P Oumarou and T Tchapda Dorothy.
Keyword: Gossypium hirsutum, varieties, evaluation, yield performance, agronomic and technological traits.
Page No: 37-44
Abstract: In the North of Cameroon, cotton is an important source of income for thousands of people living in the rural areas. Cotton seeds are a source of food and contribute to food security through producti on of vegetable oil used for many purposes. However, despite its importance in the food and household economy, cotton yields and production remain low because of the many constraints, such as drought. Drought prohibits the existing local variety from completing its life cycle and the immediate consequence is low yield. It is for this reason that seven new lines of cotton adapted to the northern part of Cameroon were developed by the IRAD through breeding to add to the existing local varieties. This work evaluated the performance of these varieties for the purpose of recommendation to farmers. Out of the seven varieties tested; only the variety Z2416 combined a good performance for both agronomic and technological traits. This variety is far superior in performance compared to the local variety and the six varieties developed with an additional yield of 281 kg / ha. The variety also produced a hint of yellow fine and long fibers (0.4 mm), a higher maturity (1.6 %) while remaining within the accepted standards. Key words: Gossypium hirsutum, varieties, evaluation, yield performance, agronomic and technological traits. Download PDF


Title: HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICIES, CARCASS YIELD AND ORGAN WEIGHTS OF GROWING RABBITS FED DIETS CONTAINING VITAMINS C AND E IN A HOT HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT
Author: **Okachi, V. C.W., Ben-Chioma, A.E. and Ani, A. O.
Keyword: , Growing rabbits, haematology, carcass yield, organ weights.
Page No: 45-53
Abstract: An eight-week study was conducted to determine the response of growing rabbits to varying dietary levels of vitamins C and E under a hot humid tropical environment. Thirty-six hybrid (Chinchilla × Ne w Zealand white) growing rabbits of both sexes with initial average weight of 0.80 kg were randomly divided into nine groups of four rabbits each and assigned to 9 diets a in a 3×3factorial arrangement involving three vitamin C levels (0, 200 and 400mgkg-1diet) and three vitamin E levels (0, 200 and 400mgkg-1diet) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 4 times with one rabbit constituting a replicate. Data were collected on haematology and carcass characteristics. Results showed that haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and differentials (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by dietary treatments, while mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean cell volume (MCV) were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the dietary treatments while the white blood cell count (WBC) of rabbits on treatments 5 and 7 increased significantly.Treatments had significant effects on the carcass traits (live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage) but had no effect on organ characteristics of the rabbits. It was concluded that a combination of 200mgkg-1diet of vitamin C and 200mgkg-1diet of vitamin E can be successfully added to the diet of growing rabbits during the dry season, without having any negative effect on their carcass yield, relative organ weights and haematological parameters. Keywords: Antioxidants, Growing rabbits, haematology, carcass yield, organ weights. Download PDF


Title: PERFORMANCE OF GROWING RABBITS FED DIETS CONTAINING VARYING DIETARY LEVELS OF VITAMIN C AND E IN A HOT HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT
Author: *Okachi, V. C.W., Ben-Chioma, A.E. and Ani, A. O.
Keyword: Antioxidants, growing rabbits, digestibility and performance.
Page No: 54-62
Abstract: An eight-week study was conducted to determine the response of growing rabbits to varying dietary levels of vitamins C and E under a hot humid tropical environment. Thirty-six hybrid (Chinchilla × Ne w Zealand white) growing rabbits of both sexes with initial average weight of 0.80 kg were randomly divided into nine groups of four rabbits each and assigned to 9 diets a in a 3×3factorial arrangement involving three vitamin C levels (0, 200 and 400mgkg-1diet) and three vitamin E levels (0, 200 and 400mgkg-1diet) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 4 times with one rabbit constituting a replicate. Feed and water were supplied to the animals ad libitum. Data were collected on performance, cost implication and digestibility. Dietary inclusion of vitamins C and E had significant effect (p< 0.05) on final body weight, daily weight gain feed conversion ratio, daily protein intake and it increased the cost of producing one kilogram of feed. Feed cost per kg increased significantly beyond 0mg/kg vitamin E inclusion level. The diet containing 200mg/kg of vitamin C and E (treatment 5) produced the highest dry matter (DM) digestibility coefficient which was similar (p> 0.05) to that of the control. It was concluded that a combination of 200mgkg-1diet of vitamin C and 200mgkg-1diet of vitamin E can be successfully added to the diet of growing rabbits during the dry season without having any negative effect on their performance. Key words: Antioxidants, growing rabbits, digestibility and performance. Download PDF


Title: ASSESSMENT OF DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY IN SORO DISTRICT OF HADIYA ZONE, ETHIOPIA
Author: Belayneh Bufebo
Keyword: Determinants. Food security, Hadiya, Soro, Household
Page No: 63-68
Abstract: Most households especially in developing nations are food insecure partly due to the rapid increase in human population, climatic variability, and environmental degradation. Small land holding and fr agmented farm size coupled with low level of technology, soil degradation and poor infrastructure have reduced the capacity of smallholder farmers in the area to purchase food as well as to produce in sustainable manner. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of household food security in Soro district of Hadiya zone. The analysis was made using the households data collected form 4/four/ Peasant associations as that are representing the district. For this study, 100 households were selected by random sampling technique from four kebeles’. Both primary and secondary data were collected for this study. Primary data was collected by direct interview of sample respondents and secondary data was collected from published and unpublished documents. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, percentages and pie charts) were used. The study illustrated that eight socio-economic factors (family size, herd size, farm land size, credit service, age of household head, use of irrigation, educational level of household head and income) and environmental factors such as erratic rain, erosion hazard and soil fertility decline determine household food security. Family size negatively affected food security and is the major causes for decrease of land, which ultimately leads to shortage of food in household level. The study result indicated that 63 percent of the sample households were found to be food insecured. It is therefore suggested that among other things focus on holistic approach is vital, to improve and develop the economic and natural resources base of food insecured households by introducing activities such as soil fertility management measures, intensive farming practice, family planning, and off-farm employment opportunities to maximize productivity and income. Key wards: Determinants. Food security, Hadiya, Soro, Household Download PDF