ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Medical and Health Sciences)


Title: A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FOCUSED GROUP EDUCATION ON AWARENESS REGRADING EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION AND ITS ILL EFFECTS AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN SELECTED AREAS OF MORADABAD, U.P.
Author: Abhilasha Donald, Dr. N.V. Muninarayanappa, M. Hemalatha Prabhu, Nageshwar V
Keyword: Effectiveness, Awareness, Focused group education, Knowledge emergency contraception and Adolescent girls.
Page No: 95-100
Abstract: Background of the Study: Adolescent girls have less knowledge on emergency contraception and its ill effects, but it can be increased through focused group education. Aim: The main objective was to d etermine the level of knowledge on emergency contraception and its ill effects. Method: Non randomized control group design. Study was conducted in selected areas of Moradabad. Sixty samples were selected using purposive sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire including demographic Performa and structured knowledge questionnaire was used to assess knowledge regarding emergency contraception and its ill effects. Results: The result of the study revealed that in experimental group pre-test, 83.33% sample had inadequate knowledge and 16.67% had adequate knowledge whereas, or the sample in control group pre-test, 76.67% had inadequate knowledge and 23.33% had adequate knowledge. After focused group education post-test score of sample in the experimental group was, 0% had inadequate knowledge and 100% had adequate knowledge, whereas for the sample in control group the post-test score was, 83.33% had inadequate knowledge and 16.67% had adequate knowledge. Interpretation and Conclusion: Significant difference reported between pre-test and post-test level of knowledge among adolescent girls of experimental group. There was statistical significant association between the pre-test level of knowledge with their certain demographic characteristics like age, type of family, occupation of mother, domicile area and source of information at 0.05 level of significance. Hence, the present study suggests necessity to spread awareness. Keywords: Effectiveness, Awareness, Focused group education, Knowledge emergency contraception and Adolescent girls. Download PDF


Title: PSYCHOSOCIAL PREDICTORS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Author: RM Chand and AM Pidgeon
Keyword: Psychological distress, social connectedness, university students
Page No: 101-114
Abstract: Psychological distress increases university students’ risk of developing mental health disorders, such as depression. The current study aims to examine the role of resilience, social connectedness an d social support in predicting psychological distress among Australian university students. In addition, the current study will also examine the prevalence rates of psychological distress reported by Australian university students across year levels and compare the prevalence to an Australian community population. Online survey data was collected from 94 Australian university students and 143 Australian community participants. Data was analysed using Independent-Samples t-Tests, an analysis of variance, a hierarchical multiple regression and a mediation analysis. Results showed no significant differences in prevalence rates of psychological distress between Australian university students and Australian community participants. Prevalence rates of psychological distress were not different across year levels of study among Australian university participants. Analyses of predictors found social connectedness was the strongest predictor of psychological distress even when social support was found to mediate the relationship. Limitations of the current study such as sample characteristics and generalisability concerns were identified. Implications of the current findings for the development of prevention and intervention programs and future research are discussed. Keywords: Psychological distress, social connectedness, university students Download PDF


Title: ASSESSMENT OF ISCHEMIA MODIFIED ALBUMIN AS A BIOMARKER OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SUSPECTED SUBCLINICAL ISCHEMIC EPISODES IN HYPERTENSIVE BLACK ZAMBIANS AT UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, LUSAKA.
Author: Peter Simoonga*, Prof. Trevor Kaile, Brown Kamanga, Sinkala Musalula, Soka Nyirenda,
Keyword: Ischaemia modified albumin (IMA), Oxidative stress, Free radical, Transitional metal, Fenton reaction
Page No: 115-122
Abstract: Background: The detection of ischemia prior to infarction is a challenging concept. Studies have shown ischemia modified albumin (IMA) to be a sensitive marker of ischemia, and it has been suggested that IMA could be an early marker to help detect ischemic stroke and ruling out patients with acute coronary syndrome. The free radicals generated in the Fenton reaction cause damage to the N terminal of albumin, this damage causes a reduction in the binding affinity of albumin for transitional metals (e.g. cobalt). The reduced binding affinity of albumin for transitional metals is the principle of some measurement methods for ischemia modified albumin (IMA). We set out to determine whether IMA could be used as a biomarker of oxidative stress in suspected sub-clinical ischemic episodes in hypertensive black Zambian. Materials and method: A total of 63 study participants were enrolled, 42 were hypertensive (21 without stroke and 21 with stroke), and 21 were normotensive age matched controls. Ischemia modified albumin levels were measured in all the study participants using IMA ELISA assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 23) to compare the mean difference in IMA levels between the participants. ANOVA test and Student’s t test were used to detect any significant differences in mean IMA levels among the three study groups. Results: Participants with hypertension and stroke had a mean IMA level of 10.721 ng/mL, those with hypertension only had 10.15 ng/mL while the normotensive controls had 6.723 ng/mL. ANOVA showed a significant difference in mean serum IMA between the three groups (F=85.259). The student t test showed a significant difference between hypertensives and the controls (t=12.833, p<0.0002)) but not between the hypertensives with stroke and without stroke (t=1.679). Conclusion: Mean IMA levels were higher in hypertensives and hypertensives with stroke than in normotensives. However, IMA levels in hypertensives with stroke and hypertensives only were not statistically different; suggesting that IMA levels could not be used to predict which hypertensive patient was more at risk of developing stroke. Further, stroke in our black Zambians may be caused more by hemorrahagic rather than ischemic episodes Key words: Ischaemia modified albumin (IMA), Oxidative stress, Free radical, Transitional metal, Fenton reaction Download PDF


Title: PLASMA ALBUMIN LEVELS AND OUTCOME OF STROKE IN ADULT PATIENTS ADMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, LUSAKA
Author: Kampolo Dominic, Soka Nyirenda, Fastone Goma, Peter Simoonga
Keyword: Electrocardiography, Hemorrhagic Stroke, Ischemic Stroke, hypoalbuminemia, Neuroprotective.
Page No: 123-143
Abstract: Albumin is a potent neuroprotective protein capable of influencing the disease process in Stroke. However, this neuromodulation has not been well documented in black African patients. This study was aimed at determining the association between plasma Albumin levels and outcome of Stroke in adult patients and the possible use of plasma Albumin level as a prognostic indicator in Stroke. Methods: Sequential first episode acute Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke patients were enrolled into the study between December 2016 and May 2017. Neurological examinations were based on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Admission plasma Albumin levels were measured using electrophoresis and CT scan imaging done. All parameters were assessed on day 0, 3, 5, and discharge from hospital and on follow-up for 2 weeks (total duration of 6 weeks). The outcome measures were 6 weeks mortality and functional outcome which were scored using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and modified Asthworth score. Results: A total of 50 acute Stroke participants were studied. The mean age was 54.30 ±14.25 years. Ischemic Stroke accounted for 62% of participants whereas 38% had Hemorrhagic Stroke. While 38% of Hemorrhagic Stroke participants died between day 3 and 13 (mean 7.34±3.86 days) of Stroke occurrence, only 9.7% of Ischemic participants died during the same period. The 6 weeks mortality rate was 16% in participants with hypoalbinemia compared to 2% in participants with normal Albumin. Albumin levels in the range of 20 to 30mg/ml (OR, 2.67; 95% confidence interval, 1 to 10) and a drop of more than 10mg/ml from admission to outcome was noted in those who died. Albumin Decrease Index (ADI) of 0.942, mean NIHSS of 8.76±4.25 and mRS 3.28±1.43 (p=0.0001) were associated with poor outcome. Conclusion: Albumin was significantly low with a high ADI in Stroke participants with a poor outcome. Patients with hypoalbuminemia are more than twice at risk of having a poor outcome. There was no difference in the ADI between Hemorrhagic and Ischemic stroke suggesting that Albumin is a good predictor of outcome in both types of Stroke. Key words: Electrocardiography, Hemorrhagic Stroke, Ischemic Stroke, hypoalbuminemia, Neuroprotective. Download PDF