Author: Shweta Dutta*, Debashish Paramanick, Kamal Babu Aditya, Vijay Kumar Singh and Deepak Kumar Dash
Keyword: Cancer, Polymeric Drug, Passive Targeting, Approaches, Toxicity
Page No: 61-71
Abstract: Around the world, remarkable resource is being investigated for in prevention, diagnostic and treatment of cancer. Cancer is second leading cause of death. The current approach to treat cancer by main ly chemotherapy agent, radiation and surgery, but main obstacle is to lack of selectivity result in toxicity to non cancerous proliferative cell .conventional anticancer drug exhibit much toxic effect in the body. So in this review focus approaches to treat cancer with minimum adverse effect. The possible approaches regarding, site specific drug targeting by polymeric drug, ligand conjugated drug which directly binding to cancer cell by cancer targeting receptor. Also discuss about chemoprotective agent, dose reduction intermittent therapy and drug polymer which help to help reduce toxicity. Unique challenge and opportunity in these work help to anticancer drug development. Keywords: Cancer, Polymeric Drug, Passive Targeting, Approaches, Toxicity Download PDF

Author: Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin
Keyword: PMTCT; MTCT; ANC; HIV/AIDS; pregnant women; breast feeding; Ethiopia
Page No: 72-83
Abstract: Introduction: Even though, much has been done to control transmission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) from mother to child, significant number of children are still living with HIV virus. Obj ective: To review literature on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) service utilization, organize, summarize key findings, Patterning conclusions and recommendations. Method: To review this literature; an integrative thought examination method was used. Google scholar, Pubmed/MEDLINE/BMC and websites of WHO and UNAIDS data bases were used as search engine by limiting the period to 2010 to 2016. Result: PMTCT service coverage is found in succeeding manner. However, according to the report of World Health Organization 2015; its utilization was decreased compared to the previous year’s unfortunately. The main hindering factor was loss to follow-up of antenatal care (ANC) services. The factor(loss to follow up of antenatal care service) hindering utilization of PMTCT service was evidenced by Ethiopian demographic health survey report of 2014 and 2016 as only 32% of pregnant women were completed their fourth ANC follow up. Furthermore, HIV testing and provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug was found in improving manner compared to previous years. However, it is still very low compared to high number of children living with HIV/AIDS. Similarly, proportion of health facility delivery was found very low. Regarding breast feeding habit of women, significant number of HIV positive breastfeeding women didn’t rely on exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion: PMTCT service providing sites were found in promising manner. However, its utilization level was found at intermediate level compared to saddle of problem in the country. Thus, need to consider adhering means of women to antenatal care services as an intervention means to enhance utilization of service prevention of transmission of HIV from mother to child. Keywords: PMTCT; MTCT; ANC; HIV/AIDS; pregnant women; breast feeding; Ethiopia. Download PDF