ARCHIVES(Journal of Harmonized Research in Pharmacy)

Title: Be aware from Ebola!
Keyword: Guest Editorial
Page No: i-ii
Abstract: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) or Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of numerous Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. It is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys, goril las, and chimpanzees). Ebola is a rare but deadly virus that causes bleeding inside and outside the body. As the virus spreads through the body, it damages the immune system and organs. Ultimately, it causes levels of blood-clotting cells to drop. This leads to severe, uncontrollable bleeding. People can become infected with the Ebola virus if they come into contact with the blood, body fluids or organs of an infected person. It's difficult to know if a patient is infected with Ebola virus in the early stages as symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain are similar to those of many other diseases. Most people are infected by giving care to other infected people, either by directly touching the victim's body or by cleaning up body fluids (stools, urine or vomit) that carry infectious blood. Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. EVD is a severe acute viral illness often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes. Ebola virus infections can be diagnosed definitively in a laboratory through several types of tests: such as, antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antigen detection tests, serum neutralization test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, electron microscopy, virus isolation by cell culture. No licensed vaccine for EVD is available. Several vaccines are being tested, but none are available for clinical use. New drug therapies are being evaluated. Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. Patients are frequently dehydrated and require oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes or intravenous fluids. Samples of blood or body fluid can be sent to a laboratory to be tested for the presence of Ebola virus, and a diagnosis can be made rapidly. Standard treatment for Ebola HF is still limited to supportive therapy. This consists of: balancing the patient’s fluids and electrolytes, maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure, treating them for any complicating infections Timely treatment of Ebola HF is important but challenging since the disease is difficult to diagnose clinically in the early stages of infection. Because early symptoms such as headache and fever are nonspecific to ebolaviruses, cases of Ebola HF may be initially misdiagnosed. The prevention of Ebola HF presents many challenges. Because it is still unknown how exactly people are infected with Ebola HF, there are few established primary prevention measures. The Ebola virus is classified as a Risk Group 4 pathogen, and therefore requires being handled in an equivalent level of biosafety (BSL-4). Scientists and researchers are faced with the challenges of developing additional diagnostic tools to assist in early diagnosis of Ebola HF and conducting ecological investigations of Ebola virus and its possible reservoir. In addition, one of the research goals is to monitor suspected areas to determine the incidence of the disease. More extensive knowledge of the natural reservoir of Ebola virus and how the virus is spread must be acquired to prevent future outbreaks effectively. Download PDF

Author: Piush Sharma*, Ganesh N. Sharma, B. Shrivastava, Hemant R. Jadhav
Keyword: Telosma pallida, Antioxidant, Reducing Power, DPPH, IC50
Page No: 125-133
Abstract: In the present work antioxidant activity of Telosma pallida leaf and stem extract was evaluated. The leaf and stem parts were individually extracted with different solvents. Preliminary phytochemica l screening of all the extracts was carried out. The present total phenolic contents were estimated by Folin- Ciocalteu reagent method and expressed as µg/mg of gallic acid equivalent. The antioxidant activity and reducing power of all the extracts were measured against DPPH as compared to standard ascorbic acid, and butylated hydroxy anisole respectively. The result data indicated that the phenolic contents were higher in methanolic extracts of leaf (60.13±0.28mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (18.38±0.31mg/g), aqueous extract (18.08±0.45mg/g) and n-Hexane (4.11±0.18mg/g). The similar pattern in stem part was also observed i.e. methanolic extracts (77.10±0.28mg/g), ethyl acetate (28.00±0.38 mg/g), water (22.65±0.41mg/g) and n-Hexane (3.76±0.36 mg/g). The antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of both the part i.e leaf and stem was found highest as IC50 values were 253.12±1.02, 158.43±0.48 respectively. The methanol extract of both parts also was found to exhibit maximum reducing capacity. The result data conclude that the higher antioxidant as well as reducing power may be due to present phenolic contents. Keywords: Telosma pallida, Antioxidant, Reducing Power, DPPH, IC50 Download PDF

Author: Litty Rosa Alex*, G. Sathyaprabha
Keyword: Telemedicine, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, HbA1c, Fasting blood sugar, Medication adherence, SMS, Telephone calls.
Page No: 134-140
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a growing public health problem worldwide and is considered as one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century. Telemedicine approaches can have a positive influence o n patient blood glucose. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SMS and telephone calls on glycaemic control and its influence on medication adherence in type 2 diabetic patients. The prospective study consisted of 81 type 2 diabetes patients, assigned to three groups: Telephone group (n = 30), SMS group (n = 27) and control group (n = 24). SMS group received 4 messages weekly for 3 months and Telephone group received calls twice weekly. Their effects in reducing the HbA1c and FBS after twelve weeks of intervention were found to be higher in Telephone and SMS group than control group. Similarly, patients in the intervention group showed a significant increase in adherence after three months. Thus it was concluded that telemedicine represents a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes. Keyword: Telemedicine, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, HbA1c, Fasting blood sugar, Medication adherence, SMS, Telephone calls. Download PDF

Author: Simone Vender, Camilla Callegari, Nicola Poloni, Cristiano Bonalumi, Fabio Ambrosini, Anna Maria Grandi
Keyword: Alexithymia; Depression; Obesity.
Page No: 141-147
Abstract: Objective:- This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between obesity, alexithymia (primary and secondary) and depression in a sample of obese outpatients.Methods: Among the patients referred to t he outpatients’ clinic for obesity in a University Hospital, we consecutively enrolled 100 overweight/obese (BMI > 27 kg/m2) subjects (35 males and 65 females) over a period of 20 months. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected; all patients underwent the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in order to measure alexithymia and depression. Results: The prevalence of alexithymia was 18% (25% including borderline values). TAS-20 mean score was 49.17 ± 12.38. Considering CES-D scores, 33% of the sample was possibly or probably depressed. CES-D score was significantly correlated to TAS-20 score (r = 0.393, p < 0.001), in particular with DIF (r = 0.524, p < 0.001) and DDF (r = 0.204, p < 0.05) subscales. BMI was not associated with alexithymia nor with depression. Conclusion: Obesity determines a vulnerability in developing depression, therefore alexithymia in obese depressed patients could be an adaptive response (secondary alexithymia). Moreover alexithymia could lead the subjects to an underestimation of depression and to not seek a correct treatment.From our results, the multidisciplinary approach in treating obese subjects should include the evaluation of emotional aspects whose diagnosis can influence the course of treatment. Keywords: Alexithymia; Depression; Obesity. Download PDF

Author: Ari Yunanto, Yulia Margareta, and Dewi Indah Noviana Pratiwi
Keyword: Neonatal sepsis, Bacteria, Antibiotic
Page No: 148-153
Abstract: Neonatal septicemia remains one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity. Early treatment and appropriate use of antibiotics would minimize the risk of its severity. This study was conducted to determine the profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates from blood cultures of neonates with septicemia admitted in our neonatal unit. About 256 datas were taken from medical record of neonates from 1 January - 31 Desember 2013. The bacterial were isolated using VITEK 2. Inclusion criteria were neonates with features of sepsis and had positive blood culture. Exclusion criteria, if the data was not complete. The result shows that the most common pathogens were Staphylococcus haemolyticus (22, 3 %), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (19,1%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (10,6%). Vancomycin, imipenem and gentamicin have high susceptibility to gram-positive bacteria. Amikacin, meropenem and ertapenem have highly sensitivitas to gram-negative bacteria. As the conclusion Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the most frequent gram-positive bacteria causing neonatal sepsis. Keywords : Neonatal sepsis, Bacteria, Antibiotic Download PDF

Author: Bozhkov A.I.*, Kabachnyy V.I., Kolot N.V., Bondar’ A.Yu., Chumak I.V.
Keyword: Low and ultra-low doses, glycosides K 333 and K 322, xenobiotics, bone marrow cells.
Page No: 154-166
Abstract: : The influence of two glycosides (K 333 and K 322) at concentrations ranging from 10-4 M to 10-18 M on the changes in the number of rats bone marrow cells in primary culture, the preservation of the native state of the plasma membrane of cells and the change in morphophenotypic characteristics of these cells starting on the 1st ending on the 4th day of cultivation was studied. It is shown that the culture of bone marrow cells may be a good model to study the effect of xenobiotics in ultra-low doses. It was found that the glycosides under study can help to increase the number of cells in culture on the first day, do not influence their content and reduce their number to the 4th day. A time dependence of the biological response on the glycosides action was presented. A non-linear dosage-dependent bimodal effect of the bone marrow cells content changing at low and ultra-low doses of glycosides was revealed. Two similar in structure glycosides caused different by "power" responses and the various in the time of their appearance. Dose of 10-15 M K333 caused a greater effect of proliferation inhibiting, than the greater dose 10-13 M of the substance and for K 322 10-13 M dose caused greater inhibitory effect than the dose 10-8 M and 10-6 M. The identified bimodal effects of ultra-low doses of glycosides in culture of bone marrow cells may be due to the presence of several levels of interaction with the cellular components of xenobiotics: hydrated, molecular, supramolecular, and possibly field (electromagnetic fields). It is suggested that the biological response is the result of integrative interactions of different hierarchical levels of xenobiotics interactions with cellular components. Keywords: Low and ultra-low doses, glycosides K 333 and K 322, xenobiotics, bone marrow cells. Download PDF

Author: Mardia T. El-Sayed*, Kazem Mahmoud, Khadiga M. Ahmed, Hassan M. Awad , and Andreas Hilgeroth
Keyword: Acid catalyzed condensation reaction, Tetraindoles, Oxidation reaction.
Page No: 167-176
Abstract: : Our novel tetraindoles 1 and 3 that are produced from the acid catalyzed condensation reaction of indoles with aliphatic or aromatic dialdehydes. These tetraindoles have previously synthesized for the first time and published by our group. Tetraindoles 1, 3 and 5 acts as a good precursor for oxidation or dehydration reactions as well as the well known diindolylmethane afforded the first oxidized tetraindoles 2, 4 and 6 with good yield. The antimicrobial activity indicated that the tested compounds (aromatic benzene ring between the tetraindole unit ) showed inhibitory activities with different degree against all tested pathogenic microorganisms including B. subtilits, E. coli, C. albicans and Aspergillus niger. Keywords: Acid catalyzed condensation reaction, Tetraindoles, Oxidation reaction. Download PDF

Author: Musalula Sinkala, Trevor Kaile, Sandra Chileya, Clemence Marimo, Lydia Korolova, Geoffrey Kwenda, Gibson Sijumbila
Keyword: Diabetes mellitus, Fatty acid synthase, Hypertriglyceridemia
Page No: 177-182
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease which affects carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism.In view of the significant effect on lipid metabolism we investigated the relationships betwee n type 2 diabetes mellitus and blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL). This was an analytical cross-sectional study where participants were adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (cases) and without diabetes mellitus (controls). Diabetes mellitus patients had significantly higher levels of blood fatty acid synthase (FAS) and triglycerides than non diabetic controls. There was a weak insignificant positive correlation in blood levels of fatty acid synthase and triglycerides in both the patients and the controls. In addition the blood concentrations of cholesterol, HDL, and LDL were not significantly different between type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and non diabetic controls. Our conclusion was that type 2 diabetes mellitus patients had significantly higher levels of FAS and triglycerides than normal controls and that there was no significant positive correlation between FAS levels and triglyceride levels. In addition there was no significant difference in cholesterol metabolism between the two groups. Key words: Diabetes mellitus, Fatty acid synthase, Hypertriglyceridemia Download PDF

Author: Vandana Deshmukh, Varsha Zade*
Keyword: Abortifacient activity, Trichyspermum ammi , Post Implantation loss, Resorption , Estrous
Page No: 183-192
Abstract: Objective: To study the potential abortifacient activity of the Trichyspermum ammi seed extract(aqueous, alcoholic and petroleum ether) in female albino rats. Methods: Pregnant rats weighing 1 20 to 200 gm were randomized into 10 groups. Rats were laprotomised on 10th day of pregnancy and live fetuses were observed in both the horns of the uterus. Rats in group 1 (control) were orally administered, with 0.5 ml of distilled water once daily while those in group 2 to 10 (experimental groups) were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight doses of aqueous, alcoholic , ether extract of the Trichyspermum ammi seed respectively. The doses were administered from day 11th to 15th of pregnancy of rats and then the animals were allowed to go full term. Results: All the three extracts of Trichyspermum ammi seed exhibited abortifacient activity( 33.61- 100%). The % of abortion was found to be highest (100%) with 400 mg/kg dose of alcoholic and ether extract of. Trichyspermum ammi seed. There was reduction in the level of FSH and LH hormone, while level of estrogen increased however there was slight decrease in the level of progesterone hormone. The estrous cycle in rats treated with aqueous, alcoholic and ether extract extract reduced duration of estrous and metestrous phases and on the other hand it was also characterized by a prolongation of the diestrous phase. Conclusion: The study has provided evidence for the abortifacient activity of all the three extracts of Trichyspermum ammi seed. However the abortifacient properties were found to be more pronounced at dose of 400, 400 and 100 mg/kg body weight aqueous, alcoholic and ether extract respectively. Keywords: Abortifacient activity, Trichyspermum ammi , Post Implantation loss, Resorption , Estrous cycle, hormonal assay, female Albino Rat Download PDF

Author: Palani.S*, Nisha Mary Joseph, Yonatan Tegene, Anish Zacharia
Keyword: Anemia, Hemoglobin, pregnancy, Iron
Page No: 193-199
Abstract: Anemia is one of the most commonly encountered medical disorders during pregnancy. In developing countries it is a cause of serious concern as, besides many other adverse effects on the mother and the fetus it contributes significantly high maternal mortality.Anaemia, the most common nutritional disorder in the world affecting 2 billion people worldwide with pregnant women particularly at risk. WHO data indicates that iron deficiency anemia is a significant problem throughout the world ranging from 1% in the industrialized countries to an average of 56% in developing countries. The major risk groups for iron deficiency include women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and lactating postpartum women. It is a major public health problem particularly among pregnant women in developing countries with adverse effects on the mother and the newborn. Present literature findings, shows that iron deficiency anemia is more likely to have adverse effects on fetal health outcomes. It has increased the substantial risk of maternal and child mortality. According to the recommendations of the leading obstetrics and gynecology societies, all pregnant women should be offered screening for anemia. Key words: Anemia, Hemoglobin, pregnancy, IronDownload PDF